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Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information Özalp Özer

Department of Management Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 [email protected]

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ustomers with positive demand lead times place orders in advance of their needs. A portfolio of customers with different demand lead times gives rise to what we call advance demand information. We develop effective inventory policies for a distribution system to account for this information. In particular, we study a centralized system with one warehouse serving multiple retailers under advance demand information. The inventory manager replenishes the warehouse from an outside supplier. Units arriving to the warehouse are allocated to the retailers. To control this system, we develop a lower bound and proposed a close-to-optimal heuristic for which the optimality gap is on average 192%. We also provide a closed-form solution to approximate the system-wide inventory level. Using this explicit solution, the model and the heuristic, we investigate (1) the beneﬁt of advance demand information, and its impact on allocation decisions, (2) the joint role of risk pooling and advance demand information, and (3) the system performance with respect to supplier and retailer lead times. We illustrate how advance demand information can be a substitute for lead times and inventory, and how it enhances the outcome of delayed differentiation. (Stochastic Inventory Systems; Advance Demand Information; Multi-Echelon; Distribution Systems; Supply Chain Management)

1.

Introduction and Literature Review

Advance demand information is obtained as customers place orders in advance of future demand requirements. Most inventory models treat customer demands as unanticipated events. Customers, however, often have different willingness to pay for the speed of delivery. A supply chain may improve its proﬁt by satisfying customers who are willing to pay higher prices for shorter demand lead times, and by offering price discounts to those customers who are willing to accept longer demand lead times.1 A portfolio of customers with different demand lead 1

A customer who places his order l periods in advance is said to have a demand lead time l.

0025-1909/03/4903/0255$5.00 1526-5501 electronic ISSN

times results in what we call advance demand information. Under this scenario, the demand for any future period will be progressively revealed. This requires the inventory manager to follow an adaptive replenishment strategy where part of the orders is placed in anticipation of the customers’ willingness to wait. Obtaining and sensibly using advance demand information enables companies to be more responsive to customer needs and improve inventory management. Strategies to elicit advance demand information include price incentives and/or priority service to customers who book early (Chen 2000). Advance demand information is often shared by downstream supply-chain partners through contractual agreements (Harvard Business School 1991). An original equipment manufacturer, for example, places orders Management Science © 2003 INFORMS Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003 pp. 255–272

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

and updates these orders over a time window to its contract manufacturer (Stanford GSB 2001). An option to customize often induces willingness to wait and results in advance demand information. A classical example is Dell’s distribution system (Dell 2000). Dell has a new initiative called “Intelligent Fulﬁllment,” which allows for four different levels of response time to customer orders: (1) standard (conventional; 5-day promised order lead time), (2) value delivery (slower; lower shipping cost), (3) premium delivery (if the order is in by 8:00 a.m.; next-day delivery by 10:30 a.m.), and (4) precision delivery (speciﬁc date). This broader choice for delivery mode and timing will presumably enhance Dell’s interaction with its customers, because customers have more choice in selecting delivery options and costs. This ﬂexibility also allows Dell to provide better service levels, because they can better optimize their own inventory and manufacturing needs based on speciﬁc customer needs.2 If appropriately used to derive inventory replenishment policies, advance demand information can be beneﬁcial. In this paper, we show how to achieve this for a two-level distribution system. Under the advance demand information model, the demand seen during any period t at retailer j j j j j j is given by dt = dt t dt t+1 dt t+N where dt s represents orders placed during period t for future period s at retailer j, and N is the information horizon beyond which the inventory manager does not collect advance demand information. We analyze a periodic-review distribution system consisting of a central warehouse and J retailers as illustrated in Figure 1. Each retailer satisﬁes the demand of their portfolio of customers that collectively gives rise to the advance demand information j vector dt . The replenishment decisions are centralized and based on system-wide information; that is, there is a unique inventory manager who controls the entire distribution system.3 The inventory manager replenishes retailers’ inventory through a central 2 On February 7, 2002, Richard Hunter from Dell announced this initiative during his presentation at Stanford University Global Supply-Chain Forum. 3

Notice that under centralized control, information sharing and coordination issues are not our concern. Reviews of these topics are provided by Cachon (2001) and Chen (2001).

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Figure 1

Distribution System with Advance Demand Information

1

l Ample Supply

L

1 t,t

, d t1, t +1 ,..., d t1, t + N

)

Retailers

0 Warehouse

(d

l J

(d

J t, t

, d tJ, t +1 ,..., d tJ, t + N

)

warehouse. He orders from an outside supplier with ample stock to replenish the warehouse. Orders from the outside supplier and shipments to retailers arrive after ﬁxed lead times L and l, respectively. We assume that the warehouse is a coordination and repackaging or cross-docking center so it does not hold inventory. Unsatisﬁed demand at each location is fully backordered. A penalty cost is charged on back orders at the retailers. Holding cost is charged on ending inventories at each retailer as well as on inventories in transit. These systems are also known as coupled systems (Zipkin 2000). Traditional research on distribution systems view the customer demand process as static and exogenous in that the demand is modeled as a stationary process. Federgruen (1992) provides a comprehensive review on this topic, including the papers by Eppen and Schrage (1981), Federgruen and Zipkin (1984a, b, c), Jackson (1988), and Schwarz (1989). As pointed out by these authors, there are two distinct advantages of having a central warehouse. First, it enables the inventory manager to negotiate lower procurement costs from the outside supplier due to aggregating volume. Second, it enables the manager to gain through risk pooling (or statistical economies of scale).4 Risk pooling (for a system with a total replenishment lead time of L + l periods) can be considered as the inventory manager’s option to carry a single system inventory during the ﬁrst L periods instead of J individual inventories. Notice that risk pooling mitigates the demand uncertainty during the ﬁrst L periods, whereas advance demand information progressively eliminates the uncertainty in the system. Consider the case where all customers place orders N periods in 4

A term coined by Eppen and Schrage (1981).

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

advance such that N > L + l. In this case, the retailers do not need to carry any inventory. A more intriguing case is a distribution system that serves a portfolio of customers with different demand lead times as in the Dell example. In this paper, we take a step in the direction of incorporating a richer information structure obtained from customers. Our general goal is to understand how advance demand information affects the system— more speciﬁcally—how the system should be managed when advance demand information is available. We establish a close-to-optimal state dependent replenishment policy and show how it responds to the changes in customer demand. The state of the system is given by modiﬁed inventory positions for each retailer and observed demands beyond the retailer lead times.5 Under this policy, the inventory manager monitors the system-wide modiﬁed inventory position. If it is less than a state dependent base-stock level, than he orders to bring the modiﬁed inventory position up to this level. Incoming materials to the warehouse are disaggregated and shipped to the retailers based on the solution of a myopic problem. We show that the base-stock level is an increasing6 function of observed demand beyond the retailer lead times, and it is affected more by an increase in the observed demand that is closer to the current period. We examine the joint role of statistical economies of scale and advance demand information. We illustrate, for example, that advance demand information is a substitute for inventory as well as for supplier and retailer lead times. The results of this paper are necessary to understand the beneﬁt of advance demand information and quantify its impact on the distribution systems to design effective incentives. Establishing optimal policies for distribution systems, even in the absence of advance demand information, is computationally intractable. There are two approaches to solve this problem: approximation by relaxation as in Federgruen and Zipkin (1984a) and 5

Inventory positions are modiﬁed to subtract the known parts of the lead time demand. The observed demand information that is beyond the lead times is kept separately as a state variable. 6

We use the term increasing in the weak sense; that is, increasing means nondecreasing.

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

Aviv and Federgruen (2001a), and approximation by restriction as in Eppen and Schrage (1981) and Federgruen and Zipkin (1984b). The ﬁrst approach considers relaxing a constraint set to obtain a simpler problem with lower-dimensional state space. It develops a heuristic based on this lower bound problem to solve the original problem. The second approach restricts the policy space to a class of policies and optimizes over this class under additional assumptions. The restriction approach, unlike the relaxation approach, does not guarantee any bound on the optimal solution. We employ both approaches here. Using the relaxation approach, we provide a close-tooptimal replenishment strategy. We also carry out a numerical study (170 instances) to gauge the sensitivity of the replenishment strategy with respect to problem parameters and to show that the optimality gap is fairly tight (on average 1.92%). Finally, using the restriction approach, we provide a closed-form solution for the system-wide base-stock level. The numerical results and the closed-form solution enable us to address issues that arise in the design of production and distribution systems. It is important to understand, for example, how the beneﬁt of advance demand information and risk pooling change as one locates the warehouse closer to the retailers or how reductions in lead times affect system performance. Some of these (re)designs may require investments in new processing plans or using faster but more expensive shipment modes. Marketing strategies such as the option to customize or promotions may result in advance demand information. It is important, therefore, to compare the beneﬁts with the costs of these actions. Our model enables us to characterize the system performance (in terms of inventory management costs) with respect to such changes in the system. For example, in a distribution system with L + l = 3, moving the warehouse from a location closer to the supplier (L = 0 l = 3) to a location closer to the retailers (L = 2 l = 1) reduces costs 202% without advance demand information and 1214% with advance demand information (see Table 6). A group of researchers has addressed distribution systems under nonstationary demands. Erkip et al. (1990) and Güllü (1997) extend the model of Eppen 257

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

and Schrage (1981), respectively, incorporating a correlation structure through the use of an index variable that follows autoregressive time series process and a forecast process. All these authors restrict the policy space to a constant, base-stock level, hence these policies do not fully use the information obtained through the demand process. In contrast, Song and Zipkin (1993) incorporate Markov modulated demand process in multiechelon inventory systems and evaluate the performance of a state-dependent base-stock policy that depends on the underlying Markov process. In a recent paper, Aviv and Federgruen (2001b) incorporate a Bayesian framework to the demand process. By doing so, they introduce the additional beneﬁt, learning effect, of having a central warehouse. The ability to obtain information about the demand during the ﬁrst L periods enables updating the demand process, hence resulting in improved allocation to retailers.7 The distribution system described here can also be interpreted as a multi-item production/distribution system with a common intermediate product. In this interpretation, the warehouse represents the differentiation point. During the ﬁrst phase of the production period, L, a common batch is produced. At the end of this period, the manager must decide on how much of each differentiated item to produce from the batch of the common intermediate product. This interpretation forms the basis of postponement strategies; see the papers by Lee et al. (1993), Aviv and Federgruen (2001a, b), and the literature therein. A special case of this problem, where L = 0 was studied by Veinott (1965). He investigates conditions that ensure the optimality of base-stock policies. Through a numerical example, we illustrate how advance demand information increases the beneﬁt gained through postponement strategies. The relaxation approach yields a lower bound problem that can be interpreted as a single-stage inventory control problem. A number of researchers incorporate the dynamic nature of demand, to single location inventory problems (Johnson and Thompson 1975, Song and Zipkin 1993, Heath and Jackson 1994, Gallego and Özer 2001, Aviv 2002). For a more 7

The authors discuss this in the context of a multi-item system.

258

detailed review on the use of demand information, we refer the reader to Gallego and Özer (2002). The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In §2, we introduce the demand model and the dynamic programming formulation. In §3, we apply the relaxation approach to obtain a lower bound model. We establish the optimality of a state-dependent basestock policy ﬁrst for the L = 0 case followed by L > 0. We do this to separate the effect of advance demand information from that of risk pooling. In §4, we propose a heuristic to control ordering and shipping decisions for the system. In §5, we conduct a numerical study of several problem instances. First, we report on the performance of the heuristic. Next, we provide insights into a set of design problems and the beneﬁts of advance demand information. In §6, we apply the restriction approach and state our assumptions to provide a closed-form solution for the system-wide basestock level. In §7, we conclude and suggest directions for future research. All the proofs are in the appendix.

2.

Model Formulation

During any period t, retailer j’s customers either purchase the product or place an order for a future period s ∈ t t + N . From the view point of the inventory manager, the demand observed at each retailer j j j j j is a vector: dt ≡ dt t dt t+N where dt s is the demand for period s observed during period t and N < is the length of the information horizon. We assume that these demand vectors are completely revealed at the end of period t. Our analysis requires that the demand vector across time be independent, but could be nonstationary. The demand vector across retailers and within the demand vector could also be correlated. We do not require differentiability and, hence the results apply to both the discrete and the continuous demand case. Under this demand model at the beginning of each period t, the demand to be realized at retailer j during a future period s ∈ t t + N − 1 can be divided into two parts as illustrated in Figure 2: the observed j j and known part ot s ≡ t−1 r=s−N dr s and the unobserved j j and unknown part ut s ≡ sr=t dr s Notice that our demand model can incorporate random order quantities and desired fulﬁllment dates. Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Figure 2

Observed and Unobserved Part of the Demand

d sj− N, s , d sj− N + 1, s ,..., dt j−1, s

observed part:

s- N j

...

t -1

t

...

s

s+1

d t j, s , d t j+1, s ,..., d sj, s:unobserved j

Let Nt be the number of customers that arrive to retailer j at period t. Assume that customer k demands a random quantity Qt k to be delivered at a random fulﬁllment date st k ∈ t t + N . Then, Nt j Qt k Ist k = s , where I· is an indicator dt s = k=1 function. Hariharan and Zipkin (1995) refer to st k − s as the demand lead time and study a single location problem, where all customers have constant demand lead times. Our demand model can be viewed as a periodic review generalization of Hariharan and Zipkin (1995) to the case of random demand lead times. The sequence of events is as follows: (1) the invenj j tory manager reviews It on-hand inventory, Bt back j orders, the pipeline inventory, and ot s , the observed part of the demand for periods s ∈ t t + 1 t + N − 1 for each retailer.8 He decides on (i) whether or not to place an order, wt ≥ 0, from an outside supplier, and (ii) how to allocate the incoming batch among the retailers, zj ≥ 0. It takes L ≥ 0 periods to receive the orders from an outside supplier and l > 0 periods to receive the shipments allocated to retailers. The total shipment to the retailers is equal J j to the incoming orders to the warehouse, j=1 zt = wt−L because the warehouse does not hold any inventory. The manager incurs a linear ordering and shipJ j j ping cost ct0 wt + j=1 ct zt . (2) The shipments placed at period t − l arrive at the retailers. (3) Demand vectors for period t at each retailer are realized. The demand for period t is satisﬁed from on-hand inventory, otherwise it is backlogged. (4) The manager incurs holding and penalty cost at each retailer based on the end-ofperiod net inventory. 8

j

ot s ≡ 0 for s ≥ t + N because we do not observe demand information beyond the information horizon.

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Notice that the allocation decision has an impact on retailer j’s holding and penalty cost only after l periods. The inventory manager should, therefore, protect the retailer against the lead time demand, which is deﬁned as the total demand realized over periods t t + 1 t + l. We use the standard accounting mechanism and charge period t with the expected inventory costs incurred at period t + l. The net inventory at the end of period t + l is given by inventory on-hand at period t plus the inventory in the pipeline, including the order just allocated to the retailer minus the backlogs minus the realized demand during the lead time. Notice that unlike the classical case (where the information horizon N = 0), we can divide the lead time demand at retailers into two parts: the observed part and the unobserved part, t+l j t+l j s=t ot s + s=t ut s We designate a set of new inventory variables to account for the known part. That is, we deﬁne j

xt = modiﬁed inventory position before shipment decision t+l t−1 j j j = It + zjs − Bt − ot s for all j ∈ 1 J s=t−l

j yt

s=t

= modiﬁed inventory position after shipment decision j

j

= xt + zt for all j ∈ 1 J These variables differ from classical inventory variables in that they subtract the observed part of the lead time demand, hence the name modiﬁed. This enables us to reduce the dimension of the state space of the dynamic programming algorithm. The expected holding and penalty cost charged to period t for retailer j is given by t+l j j j j j l G˜ t yt = Egt yt − ut s s=t

where is the discount factor and the expectation is with respect to the unobserved part of the demand realized during periods t through t + l. For all t and j j, we assume that gt is convex, that G˜ t exists, and ˜ that lim x → Gx = (these are standard assumptions in the inventory literature). All these assumptions, for example, are satisﬁed for a linear holding 259

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

j

j

cost ht per item, and a linear penalty cost pt per back order. The expected holding and penalty cost charged to period t for retailer j for this example would be t+l j − j j j j j j j + G˜ t yt = l Eht %yt − t+l s=t ut s & + pt %yt − s=t ut s & The state of the system is given by three vectors: J

xt ' xt1 xt

vt ' wt−L wt−1 J

ot ' ot1 ot2 ot j

where ot is the observed demand informaj tion beyond retailer j’s lead time; that is, ot = j j j ot t+l+1 ot t+N −1 . Notice that the vector ot exists only for N > l + 1. This vector holds the observed part of the demand information that is not subsumed in the modiﬁed inventory position. The vector vt is the pipeline inventory between the supplier and the warehouse. After making the order and shipment decisions and j j j observing the demand vectors dt = dt t dt t+N at each retailer, the manager updates the modiﬁed inventory positions by j

j

j

j

xt+1 = xt + zt − dt t −

t+l+1 s=t+1

j

j

dt s − ot t+l+1

(1)

and the vector of observed demand beyond the lead time by j

j

j

ot+1 = ot+1 t+l+2 ot+1 t+N j

j

(2)

j

where ot+1 s = ot s + dt s . The solution to the following dynamic programming algorithm minimizes the cost of managing this two-level distribution system for a ﬁnite horizon with T − t periods remaining to the termination: Jt xt vt ot =

wt yt '

J

j

min j

j=1 yt −xt =wt−L yt ≥xt wt ≥0

ct0 wt +

J j=1

j

j

Gt yt

+ EJt+1 xt+1 vt+1 ot+1 (3) j j j j j j j where Gt yt = ct − ct+1 yt + G˜ t yt and JT +1 · · · ≡ 0 and the expectation is with respect to the demand j vectors dt . The formal construction of this dynamic program is similar to Gallego and Özer (2001).

260

We remark that if the inventory manager wishes to incorporate advance demand information only up to the next l + 1 periods for all retailers, then the state space would be similar to that of classical distribution systems (as in Federgruen and Zipkin 1984a). All proposed heuristics to solve the classical distribution system and the reported performance measures would apply to this special case. The inventory manager would only need to update his inventory position to account for the observed part and use modiﬁed inventory positions instead. From this point, on we consider only the problem where N > l + 1.

3.

Lower Bound Model

The state space for the dynamic program in Equation (3) is of dimension J + L + J N − l − 1 + . It is impractical to deal with such a large state space. Even in the absence of advance demand information, the classical distribution system runs into the problem of “dimensionality.” In this section, we develop a lower bound approximation that has a lower-dimensional state space by relaxing the constraint yt ≥ xt . We conclude by establishing the optimality of a state dependent base-stock policy for the lower bound problem. Relaxing the constraint yt ≥ xt means that shipments can be a negative quantity as long as the total shipments from the warehouse is equal to the incoming orders. This can be interpreted as: If the inventory (pipeline and on-hand) at some retailers are high, some of this excess can be transferred to other retailers at no cost. Similarly, if the observed part of the lead time demand (this could be interpreted as retailers’ commitment) is excessive, part of this demand can be satisﬁed through other retailers that have high-modiﬁed inventory position at no cost. Under this relaxation, all retailers collapse into an aggregate retailer. The state space of this new relaxed problem will be based on aggregate quantities. Let Dt s = Ot s =

J j=1 J j=1

j

dt s j

ot s

Xt =

J j=1

Ut s =

j

xt

J j=1

j

ut s

We use the convention of capital letters to indicate the aggregation across all retailers. The state space of Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

the relaxed dynamic program is given only by the aggregate quantities Xt , vt , and Ot = Ot t+l+1 Ot t+N −1 . The dynamic programming recursion below solves this aggregate retailer problem and provides a lower bound for the original distribution system. Theorem 1. For all xt vt ot , the relaxation results in a dynamic programming algorithm with the state space aggregated across all retailers and is given by Vt Xt vt Ot =

min

wt Yt ' wt ≥0 Yt =Xt +wt−L

ct0 wt + Rt Yt

+ EVt+1 Xt+1 vt+1 Ot+1

(4)

where VT +1 ≡ 0, the update for Xt is given by Xt+1 = Yt − t+l+1 Dt s − Ot t+l+1 and s=t J J j j j (5) Rt Yt = min Gt yt ' yt = Yt j

∀yt

j=1

j=1

The solution to this DP is a lower bound to the solution of Jt xt vt ot deﬁned in (3). In addition, Rt Yt is convex and lim Yt → Rt Yt = . Yt represents the sum of all retailers’ modiﬁed inventory positions, plus the order that has just arrived to the warehouse at period t. Hence, function Rt is the minimum cost of managing retail inventories given Yt , assuming that the retail inventories can be rebalanced instantaneously and at no cost. We differentiate next the two cases: a negligible supplier lead time L = 0 and a positive supply lead time L > 0. This helps us determine the impact of advance demand information on the system independent of the effect of risk pooling. 3.1. Lower Bound Problem When L = 0 The distribution system without advance demand information and with zero supply lead time beneﬁts only through its ability to negotiate lower procurement prices (Eppen and Schrage 1981). The dynamic program for this case is given by Vt Xt Ot = −ct0 Xt + min Ht Yt Ot Yt ≥Xt

where Ht Yt Ot ≡ ct0 y + Rt y + EVt+1 xt+1 Ot+1 , Dt s − VT +1 ≡ 0, and the update is Xt+1 = Yt − t+l+1 s=t Ot t+l+1 . Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

In Theorem 2, we establish ﬁrst, the optimality of state-dependent base-stock policy and characterize its behavior. Under this policy, the warehouse orders whenever the system-wide modiﬁed inventory position falls below a base-stock level. We show that the optimal base-stock level is increasing in observed demand beyond the retailer lead time l. In particular, an increase in the observed demand beyond the retailer lead time that is closer to the current period increases the base-stock level more than the one that is far out in the future. Furthermore, this increase in the base-stock level is never more than the increase in the observed demand. To show this, we deﬁne ej as the N − l − 1 -dimensional unit vector whose jth element is 1. By adding 3ej to the vector, Ot is equivalent to increasing the cumulative observed demand in the period that is j periods beyond the lead time by 3 units, that is Ot t+l+j + 3. Theorem 2. The following statements are true for any vector Ot , 3 > 0, and for all t: (1) Ht x Ot is convex, (2) A state dependent base-stock policy is optimal. The base-stock level is given by yt∗ Ot ≡ miny ' Ht x Ot ≥ Ht y Ot for all x = y (3) Vt x Ot + ct0 x is an increasing convex function, (4) yt∗ Ot + 3ej ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3ej+1 for j = 1 N − l − 2 (5) yt∗ Ot + 3ej − yt∗ Ot ≤ 3 for j = 1 N − l − 1, and (6) yt∗ Ot ≥ yt∗ Ot for all Ot ≥ Ot .9 These results delineate the distribution systems response with respect to observed demands beyond the retailer lead time. The system responds by increasing the base-stock level if there is demand to come in the future. The manager is more likely to order in that case and when he does, he orders a larger quantity. These kinds of monotonicity results also limit the search for optimal policy parameters, hence improving the computational work required to solve largescale problems. 9

For two vectors Ot and Ot , Ot ≥ Ot if and only if each element of Ot is greater than or equal to the corresponding element of Ot .

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ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

3.2. Lower Bound Problem when L > 0 We apply an accounting scheme to subtract pipeline inventory from the supplier to the warehouse. This scheme was introduced by Veinott (1965, 1980) in the context of single location problems and was applied to distribution systems ﬁrst by Federgruen and Zipkin (1984a). If we initiate an order from the outside supplier at the beginning of period t, it will arrive to the warehouse by the beginning of period t +L. Consequently, the total modiﬁed inventory position, plus the order that has just arrived to be rebalanced at period t + L is given by j Yt+L = xt+L + wt j

= Xt4 + wt − Yt4

t+L−1 r+l+1 r=t

s=r

Dr s −

t+L−1 s=t

Os s+l+1 j

We obtain the second equality by substituting xt+L j for the update (1) and ws−L for j zs , and deﬁning the system-wide modiﬁed inventory position at period ws−t . The dynamic program is t as Xt4 = Xt + t+L−1 s=t given by V˜t Xt4 Ot = −ct0 Xt4 + min Ht Yt4 Ot Yt4 ≥Xt4

(6)

4 where Ht y Ot = ct0 y + L ERt+L y + E V˜t+1 Xt+1 t+l+1 4 ˜ Ot+1 , Xt+1 = y − s=t Dt s −Ot t+l+1 , and VT +1 ≡ 0. We have

Lemma 1. V˜t Xt4 Ot = Vt Xt vt Ot +rt Xt vt Ot This result states that the algorithm in (6) is similar to the one in (4), except the constant term rt , which is deﬁned in the appendix. This term is independent of order and shipment decisions, hence it can be dropped for optimization purposes. We remark that Theorem 2 also applies to the above dynamic programming algorithm.

4.

Proposed Heuristic

We decide on the aggregate order quantity based on a state-dependent base-stock level obtained from the solution of the lower bound problem. The aggregate order quantity is given by wt Ot ≡ yt∗ Ot − Xt4 This quantity depends on the observation beyond the 262

aggregate retailer lead time as elaborated in Theorem 2. In this sense, the lower bound problem makes full use of advance demand information. Next, we decide on how to allocate the incoming order, wt−L . We allocate this order to retailers based on the solution of the following allocation problem:

J J j j min Git yti ' yt − xt = wt−L yt ≥ xt (7) j=1

j=1

This allocation is referred to as myopic for two reasons. First, it minimizes the total expected cost of managing the retailer inventories at the end of period t + l (the period when the allocations are available for the retailer) and ignores the impact of this allocation on other periods. Second, it does not take into consideration the observed demand information beyond the retailers’ lead time (unlike the lower bound). Notice that this is a feasible solution to the original problem, hence it is an upper bound. In our numerical study, we use a greedy algorithm both to solve the myopic allocation and to evaluate Rt Yt deﬁned in Equation (5). To solve the allocation problem, we start with yti = xti and allocate one unit at a time to the jth retailer with the smallest current j value of the ﬁrst difference (that is, minj Gt y + 1 − j Gt y ) until all wt−L is allocated. To evaluate Rt Yt , J j j we start with Rt j=1 ∗ yt , where ∗ yt is the minimum j of Gt · and allocate the difference Yt − Yt∗ , if positive, one unit at a time to the jth retailer with the smallest current value of the ﬁrst difference. Otherwise, we reduce the amount allocated one unit at a time from the jth retailer with the largest current value of the j j ﬁrst difference (that is, maxj Gt y − Gt y − 1 ). Similar algorithms are used by Fox (1966), Federgruen and Zipkin (1984a, b), Zipkin (2000), and Aviv and Federgruen (2001a). We remark that a capacitated distribution system, in which a warehouse is allowed to process up-to a limited quantity, can be solved by using the replenishment policy in Özer and Wei (2001) together with a myopic allocation.

5.

Numerical Study

First, we compare the solution of the lower bound (LB) problem to the solution of the proposed heuristic Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

(upper bound (UB)). We report the difference as percentage error, 3% = UB − LB /LB, which is a measure of the suboptimality for the heuristic. A small value indicates that the heuristic is close to optimal and that the lower bound is accurate. We use a backward induction algorithm to solve the LB problem (6) and to obtain the optimal system base-stock level yt∗ Ot and the associated cost. All cases considered have linear holding, back ordering costs, and uniform rates. We simulate the system to estimate the cost of the proposed heuristic. We run several replications to have a 95% conﬁdence interval. We compute both the lower bound and the heuristic for a ﬁnite horizon of length T . Classical literature on distribution systems minimize average cost as an objective, but notice that this is an approximation for a ﬁnite horizon system. We j set each retailers’ initial inventory to I0 = y0∗ O0 /J j and o0 ≡ 0. We compare the simulation outcome with the cost of the LB for which the initial state is X04 = j j I0 . We conclude by providing some insights into strategic questions that may arise in the design of distribution systems. We use Poisson random variables to model the j demand vector. That is, dt s is Poisson with mean j 7s−t . In many practical situations, demand behaves like a Poisson process, in particular, when the demand comes from many small nearly independent sources such as individual customers spread across a large region (Zipkin 2000, p. 179). We discuss the possible effects of other distributions on our numerical results. The following example clariﬁes how we model different advance demand information scenarios. Example. Assume that information horizon for a two-retailer distribution system is two periods (N = 2). Let t be the current period. The demand vector to be realized during period t for retailer j is j j j dt t dt t+1 dt t+2 . The total demand that is going to j be realized during period s > t + 2 is equal to ds−2 s + j j j j j ds−1 s + ds s , which is Poisson with mean 72 + 71 + 70 . By increasing this sum, one increases the variance of the demand seen by retailer j at each period. During j period s −2, ds−2 s is realized and the remaining uncerj j tainty is only due to ds−1 s + ds s . Now consider the following scenarios: Under the ﬁrst scenario, assume that the retailers are incapable of obtaining demand information in advance. To reﬂect this case, we model Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

the demand vector by Poisson random variables with j j j means 70 > 0 and 71 = 72 ≡ 0. Now assume that all customers place their demand one period in advance, j j that is 70 = 72 ≡ 0 and 71 > 0. Finally, assume that all customers place orders two periods in advance. This j j j case is modeled by 70 = 71 ≡ 0 and 72 > 0. Any other advance demand information scenario can be similarly modeled. We consider the number of retailers, advance demand information scenario, supplier lead time L, retailer lead time l, length of the planning horizon T , and the cost structure h p c to be the drivers of our numerical study. Throughout the numerical study, we set N = l + 2. For this case, the LB problem is two-dimensional and Ot is a scalar that is equal to Dt−1 t+l+1 . We use the following set of parameters: h = 005 1 2

p = 1 5 19

c = 05 10 30

T = 50 75

L = 0 1 2

l = 1 2 3

J = 2 5 6 8 12

N = l+2

We study a total of 170 instances. The ﬁrst part of our numerical study addresses 110 instances in which the retailers are identical. The second part addresses 16 instances in which retailers differ in their advance demand information scenarios. We refer to this as information imbalance. The ﬁnal part (44 instances) focuses on distribution system design experiments. 5.1. Performance of the Heuristic The average optimality gap is 192% for the ﬁrst group (110 instances). Within this group, the ﬁrst set consists of 44 experiments in which the retailer lead time is l = 1 (see Table 1). The second set consists of 34 experiments in which l = 2 (see Table 2). Within each set, we address a subset of distribution systems with 2, 5, and 8 retailers. For each of these subsets, we address different advance demand information scenarios starting with the case of no advance demand information 70 > 0 0 0 . To observe the impact of the planning horizon on the error term, we divide this group into 90 experiments with T = 50 periods and 20 experiments with T = 75 periods (see Table 3). The error term is relatively insensitive with respect to the number of retailers (see Tables 1 and 2). The average error term for a system with two retailers is 242%, whereas for ﬁve retailers, it is 246%. On the 263

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Table 1

Identical Retailers with l = 1 T = 50 h = 1 p = 19 c = 10 L = 0 l = 1

# ret

0 1 2 3

yt 0

LB

2

(1 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0) (0 0 1 0) (0 0 0 1)

10 6 0 0

2334 37 2246 96 2019 98 1979 98

2

(2 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0) (0 0 2 0) (0 0 0 2)

16 10 0 0

2

(3 0 0 0) (0 3 0 0) (0 0 3 0) (0 0 0 3)

5

L = 1 l = 1 %

yt 0

LB

2339 35 ± 8 36 2262 36 ± 8 60 2080 94 ± 8 15 2021 17 ± 8 03

0.21 0.69 3.02 2.08

12 8 5 0

2366 46 2301 18 2176 00 1999 98

2384 94 ± 7 01 2312 45 ± 7 35 2268 14 ± 7 96 2021 73 ± 8 13

0.78 0.49 4.23 1.09

4464 43 4350 36 4040 00 3960 00

4484 98±16 50 4386 63±16 28 4154 84±16 39 4036 72±16 04

0.46 0.83 2.84 1.94

20 14 8 0

4510 93 4411 44 4250 93 4000 00

4583 41±13 39 4496 25±14 46 4407 20±15 85 4036 74±16 04

1.61 1.92 3.68 0.92

20 12 0 0

6578 31 6430 64 6060 00 5940 00

6633 18±27 76 6506 48±25 21 6237 25±23 68 6056 99±23 39

0.83 1.18 2.92 1.97

27 19 10 0

6633 07 6508 76 6317 61 6000 00

6770 31±19 22 6550 34±21 95 6532 37±22 99 6056 99±23 99

2.07 0.64 3.40 0.95

(1 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0) (0 0 1 0) (0 0 0 1)

25 15 0 0

5831 99 5613 31 5050 00 4950 00

5844 02±20 78 5651 03±21 49 5199 71±20 46 5050 39±20 05

0.21 0.67 2.96 2.03

28 20 9 0

5880 04 5676 92 5282 65 5000 00

5969 95±18 81 5748 55±18 69 5560 32±19 87 5050 39±20 04

1.53 1.26 5.26 1.01

5

(2 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0) (0 0 2 0) (0 0 0 2)

40 25 0 0

11157 24 10872 45 10100 00 9900 00

11208 12±41 14 10958 28±40 66 10382 87±40 93 10085 02±40 25

0.46 0.79 2.80 1.87

48 34 15 0

11220 13 10938 67 10428 50 10000 00

11445 59±34 36 11275 13±36 47 10819 59±39 90 10085 02±40 25

2.01 3.08 3.75 0.85

8

(1 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0)

40 24

9329 16 8979 10

9346 49±33 23 9039 91±34 35

0.19 0.68

45 32

9385 09 9055 15

9530 97±26 54 9194 52±29 95

1.55 1.54

Table 2

UB

0 1 2 3 4

yt∗ 0

LB

2

(2 0 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0 0) (0 0 2 0 0) (0 0 0 2 0) (0 0 0 0 2)

20 16 10 0 0

4562 49 4464 43 4350 36 4040 00 3960 00

2

(3 0 0 0 0) (0 3 0 0 0) (0 0 3 0 0) (0 0 0 3 0) (0 0 0 0 3)

28 20 12 0 0

5

(2 0 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0 0) (0 0 2 0 0) (0 0 0 2 0) (0 0 0 0 2)

8

(1 0 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0 0)

264

%

Identical Retailers with l = 2 T = 50 h = 1 p = 19 c = 10 L = 0 l = 2

# ret

UB

L = 1 l = 2 %

yt∗ 0

LB

4631 83 ± 13 5 4619 68±14 42 4465 10±16 50 4346 72±17 92 4221 89±17 54

1.52 3.48 2.64 7.59 6.61

25 20 14 8 0

4596 42 4510 59 4411 44 4250 93 4000 00

4661 59±13 04 4589 65±13 46 4498 63±14 49 4405 26±15 82 4034 27±16 87

1.42 1.75 1.98 3.63 0.86

6683 13 6578 31 6430 64 6060 00 5940 00

6856 66±20 07 6776 52±22 06 6695 28±24 43 6518 77±27 12 6332 72±26 72

2.60 3.01 4.12 7.57 6.61

35 27 19 10 0

6727 57 6633 07 6508 76 6317 61 6000 00

6861 76±18 70 6774 65±20 25 6680 26±21 95 6526 16±24 05 6051 19±26 13

1.99 2.13 2.63 3.30 0.85

50 40 25 0 0

11401 62 11157 24 10872 45 10100 00 9900 00

11576 24±34 06 11546 42±36 45 11159 42±41 72 10861 80±44 61 10553 79±44 61

1.53 3.49 2.64 6.60 6.60

62 48 34 15 15

11429 87 11220 13 10938 67 10428 50 10000 00

11625 79±33 08 11462 04±34 91 11281 37±36 93 10820 00±40 30 10086 72±40 78

1.71 2.16 3.13 3.75 0.87

48 40

9589 64 9329 16

9621 13±26 95 9570 88±27 98

0.33 2.59

57 45

9633 83 9385 09

9678 64±28 23 9560 79±28 84

0.47 1.87

UB

UB

%

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Table 3

Identical Retailers Where T = 75 h = 1 p = 19 c = 10 L = 0 l = 1

# ret

L = 1 l = 1

0 1 2 3

yt 0

LB

UB

%

yt 0

LB

UB

%

2

(1 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0)

10 6

3,506.85 3,370.28

3511 59±12 05 3385 43±12 90

0.14 0.45

12 8

3,552.66 3,449.15

3590 62±10 44 3455 32±11 21

1.07 0.18

2

(2 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0) (0 0 2 0) (0 0 0 2)

16 10 0 0

6,698.05 6,522.85 6,040.00 5,960.00

6713 59±24 56 6552 81±24 12 6150 45±24 14 6030 73±23 75

0.23 0.46 1.83 1.19

20 14 8 0

6,764.51 6,611.16 6,367.74 6,000.00

6882 15±19 93 6742 11±21 52 6601 45±23 58 6030 73±23 75

1.74 1.98 3.67 0.51

L = 0 l = 2

L = 1 l = 2

2

(1 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0)

12 10

3,600.28 3,506.85

3611 36±10 08 3593 78±10 43

0.31 2.48

15 12

3,642.62 3,552.67

3690 84 ± 9 94 3591 41±10 07

1.32 1.09

2

(2 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0)

20 16

6,839.83 6,698.05

6930 89±20 24 6914 66±21 67

1.33 3.23

25 20

6,893.59 6,764.51

6992 11±19 58 6888 76±20 22

1.43 1.84

other hand, increasing the retailer lead times seems to increase the error term. The average gap is 167% for the set l = 1 and it is 309% for the set l = 2. We believe that this is due to the larger uncertainty introduced to the system by longer retailer lead time. Recall that the heuristic cannot reallocate the imbalances in modiﬁed inventory positions at each retailer, whereas the lower bound can. The comparison of the experiments in Table 3 with their counterparts in Tables 1 and 2 shows that the error term is decreasing as we increase the planning horizon. This suggests that under average cost criterion, the heuristic would more likely better perform. We observe an increase followed by a decrease in the error term as the inventory manager obtains demand information further in advance. Consider, for example, the initial set of experiments in Table 1. The error 302% corresponds to the case where retailers learn their demand two periods in advance. The LB problem makes better use of advance demand information than the UB (the heuristic), hence we observe an increase in the error term (as discussed in more detail after Equation (7)). In Table 4, in which we address systems with retailers facing different advance demand information scenarios, the average error is 371%. The maximum error was 132% for a distribution system L = 0 l = 2 with two retailers, one of which has no advance demand information while the other obtains demand information four periods in advance. This case represents the maximum possible Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

information imbalance that this distribution system can face. We also observe that the error term decreases as the number of balanced retailers in the system increases. One ﬁnal observation is that as we increase the mean which is also the variance, the optimality gap tends to increase. Together with the numerical results reported in Aviv and Federgruen (2001a) and Federgruen and Zipkin (1984a, b), we expect an increase in the error term if we use demand distributions with larger coefﬁcient of variation. These observations suggest that the heuristic should perform fairly well for problems where 1 the retailer lead time is short relative to the supplier lead times, 2 the number of balanced retailers in the system is large, 3 the planning horizon is long, and 4 the demand variation is modest. 5.2.

Advance Demand Information as a Substitute for Inventory Distribution systems that incorporate advance demand information carry less inventory and are subject to lower holding and penalty costs than otherwise equivalent systems (observed from all experiments in Tables 1–6). Consider, for example, the case L = l = 1 in Table 5. The percentage decrease in inventory-related cost (the LB) due to advance demand information between the ﬁrst experiment (in which none of the customers places orders in advance) and the sixth experiment (in which all customers during each period t place orders for period 265

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Table 4

Only Retailer 1 Obtains ADI T = 50 h = 1 p = 19 c = 10 0 1 2 3

L = 0 l = 1

L = 1 l = 1

# ret

ret j = 1

ret j = 1

yt 0

LB

UB

%

yt 0

LB

UB

%

2

1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0

11 13

2366 61 4472 77

2398 63 ± 7 01 4472 77±17 72

1 35 1 49

10 17

2327 89 4457 78

2352 83 ± 7 53 4549 11±14 02

1 07 2 05

5

2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0

0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2

37 32

11100 16 10903 07

11245 02±44 14 11654 60±59 44

1 31 6 89

46 39

11153 24 10975 78

11396 35±34 78 11235 09±39 92

2 18 2 36

0 1 2 3 4

L = 0 l = 2

L = 1 l = 2

2

2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0

0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

18 10

4513 27 4258 37

4639 86±30 13 4820 45±29 93

2 80 13 20

22 13

4557 88 4311 23

4619 59±14 35 4854 37±40 39

1 35 12 60

5

2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0

0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

48 32

11352 45 11097 02

11586 31±34 84 11501 29±40 86

2 06 3 64

59 50

11389 77 11143 83

11558 17±33 85 11548 22 ± 48 5

1 48 3 63

t + 3) is 886%. Notice also that the system maintains lower inventory levels (zero inventory) as customers place their orders (3 > L + l periods) in advance. In this sense, advance demand information is a substitute for inventory. Based on such an analysis, the inventory manager can decide whether to invest in strategies to obtain advance demand information. Notice that advance demand information allows a fundamental bridge between build-to-stock and build-to-order systems.

narios. For a ﬁxed system lead time, the difference between any two curves in Figure 3(a) and (b) gives us the reduction in inventory-related costs and basestock levels due to advance demand information. These savings can be seen as the value of advance demand information. We also observe the reduction in base-stock levels and the costs with the system lead time. Both ﬁgures depict the joint effect of total lead time and advance demand information on the system performance.

5.3.

5.4.

Advance Demand Information and Lead Time Reduction In Figures 3(a) and (b), we plot optimal system-wide base-stock levels and the associated costs as a function of total system lead time. We systematically decrease the supplier lead time while keeping the retailers’ lead time constant (l = 2) to illustrate the beneﬁt of lead time reduction on total cost. Each curve represents different advance demand information sceTable 5

Advance Demand Information as a Substitute for Lead Time Consider the following three distribution systems with two retailers (from Tables 1 and 2): ID

L l

ADI Scenario

y∗

Cost (LB)

ADI Scenario

y∗

Cost (LB)

S1 S2 S3

1 1 0 2 1 2

2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0

20 20 20

4,510.59 4,562.49 4,510.59

0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

14 16 14

4,411.44 4,464.43 4,411.44

Cost of LB and UB for Two Retailers h = 0 05 p = 1 c = 0 5 L = 0 l = 1

0 1 2 3 3 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 3

h = 1 p = 19 c = 10 L = 1 l = 1

yt 0

LB

UB

UB − LB/LB%

yt 0

LB

UB

UB − LB/LB%

20 18 12 6 0 0

329.39 326.74 321.86 312.26 299.00 297.00

332 12 ± 0 07 329 64 ± 0 07 325 59 ± 0 07 316 41 ± 0 06 306 06 ± 0 06 303 15 ± 0 06

0.83 0.89 1.16 1.33 2.36 2.07

27 25 19 11 5 0

7255 07 7209 71 7130 77 6964 17 6765 43 6612 00

7381 32±19 22 7374 48±20 56 7303 79±21 17 7085 26±22 54 6866 23±23 84 6661 07±23 39

1.74 2.29 2.43 1.74 1.04 0.74

8.86%

266

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ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Table 6

Advance Demand Information vs. Postponement yt 0

0 1 2 3 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2

Cost of LB

L=0 l =3

L=1 l =2

L=2 l =1

L=0 l =3

L=1 l =2

L=2 l =1

%

26 20 16 10

25 20 14 8

24 19 13 8

100 00† 97 71 95 20 92 03

99 23 96 76 93 87 89 86

98 36 95 63 92 23 89 13

1 67 2 18 3 22 3 25

8 66

9 44

9 38

100 00‡ 97 36 94 37 90 91

99 03 96 30 93 10 88 47

98 02 95 01 91 25 87 76

9.99%

11.94%

10.46%

†100 00 ≡ 5500 58 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

14 10 8 4

13 10 7 4

13 10 7 4

‡100 00 ≡ 2809 94

2 02 2 47 3 42 3 59

Note. N = 3 h = 1 c = 10 p = 19.

Distribution systems S1 and S3 differ only in their retailer lead time and in their advance demand information scenario. Customers of S3 place orders one more period in advance than that of S1, while the retailers in S3 wait one period longer than the retailers in S1 to receive their orders. Observe that both cost and base-stock level for S1 are equal to those for S3. In this sense, advance demand information is a substitute for retailer lead time. Similarly, customers of S3 Figure 3

place orders one more period in advance than that of S2, which has a shorter supplier lead time. Notice that S3 maintains slightly lower base-stock levels and has slightly lower inventory costs than S2. System S3 accounts further gain due to the risk pooling during the ﬁrst L periods. All other numerical examples also suggest that if other factors remain the same: Encouraging customers to place orders one more period in advance (1) has the same effect in holding and

(a) Cost vs. System Lead Time and ADI (b) Base-Stock Levels vs. System Lead Time and ADI for T = 50 h = 1 p = 19 c = 10

(a)

(b) 35

4650.00

2,0,0,0,0 0,2,0,0,0

30

0,0,2,0,0

4550.00

0,0,0,2,0 0,0,0,0,2

25

y*(0)

Cost (LB)

4450.00

4350.00

15

A

4250.00

20

B

10

4150.00

2,0,0,0,0 0,2,0,0,0

5

0,0,2,0,0

4050.00

0,0,0,2,0 0,0,0,0,2

3950.00

2

0

3

4

System Lead Time (L+l)

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

5

2

3

4

5

System Lead Time (L+l)

267

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

penalty cost as reducing the retailers’ lead time by one period, and 2 has more gains than reducing supplier lead time by one period. The gain due to risk pooling and advance demand information, together, outweighs the gain from reducing the supplier lead time. Another example for the later phenomenon can be observed in Figure 3(a). While B has one period longer supply lead time than A, the inventory manager in B obtains demand information one period earlier than A’s manager. The difference between the costs in A and B can be attributed to the gains due to risk pooling. For a continuous review single location inventory control problem, Hariharan and Zipkin (1995, p. 1600) show that: “Demand lead times are, in a precise sense, the opposite of supply lead times.” Our numerical results suggest that this result carries over to the periodic review distribution system as an UB on the cost; that is, one would gain even more compared to the single location problems due to risk pooling. 5.5.

Advance Demand Information and Postponement We now interpret this distribution system as a multi-item production system with a common intermediate product. The warehouse represents the differentiation point. During the ﬁrst L period, a common batch is produced. At the end of this period, the manager must decide how much of each item to produce and it takes l periods to produce each of these units. We address the effect of advance demand information on postponement strategies in Table 6 by altering the differentiation point L and advance demand information scenario. Columns 2–7 in Table 6 correspond to different differentiation points, whereas the rows correspond to different advance demand information scenarios. Immediate differentiation and no advance demand information is the base case for which the cost is indexed to 100. Consider, for example, the no advance demand information scenario. As we move from the column in which we have immediate differentiation L = 0 to the one in which we do not differentiate until the last period L = 2, we observe a reduction in the base-stock level from 26 to 24 and the cost from 100 to 9836. Now, similarly 268

consider the case of no postponement (immediate differentiation). As we move from the row in which we have no advance demand information 2 0 0 0 to the row in which all customers place their orders three periods in advance, we observe a reduction in the base-stock level from 26 to 10. A more complete numerical study for postponement should address the correlation among the end items. For the case of positive correlation among end items, the gains due to postponement would be lower than that of an independent case. In fact, if the products are perfectly positively correlated, there is nothing to be gained through postponement (Aviv and Federgruen 2001a). For the positive (negative) correlation case, the above numerical study provides an upper (lower) bound to the beneﬁt of postponement. A similar numerical study can also be used to compare the beneﬁts of obtaining advance demand information and the problem of warehouse location. Note that in the warehouse-retailer context, this section could be titled as “the joint role of advance demand information and risk pooling.”

6.

Restriction and Allocation

Next, we provide an explicit solution for the systemwide order-up-to level. Our aim is to gain further insights for the joint role of risk pooling and advance demand information. To obtain this closed-form solution, we assume that (1) unit holding and penalty j cost is the same for all retailers, (2) dt s follows a nor2 for mal distribution with mean 8s−t and variance 9s−t s ∈ t t + N , (3) allocation assumption (introduced by Eppen and Schrage 1981) holds,10 and (4) we restrict the policy space to the class of stationary order-up-to S policies and allocate based on the solution of the myopic problem in Equation (7).

10

Allocation Assumption. In each allocation period t, the warehouse receives a sufﬁcient amount so that it can bring all retailers to an equal fractile level on their respective demand distributions; that is, stock-out probability is the same at all retailers.

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Under these assumptions, the optimal order-up-to level is S∗ =

J t+L+l j=1 s=t

j

ot s + J

L+l L + l + 1 − k 8k

k=0 L L+l L + zJ L − k 9k2 + J 2 l + 1 9k2 + J 2 L + l + 1 − k 9k2 k=0

k=0

by pooling demand and gaining through statistical economies of scale (but never eliminating it). Given all four assumptions, Equation (8) provides a simple closed-form solution for the system-wide base-stock level. This is a nonadaptive control mechanism unlike the solution provided by the dynamic program.

k=L+1

(8) where 8s 9s ≡ 0 for s > N because the manager does not accept orders beyond the information horizon. We defer the derivation to Appendix B. Note ﬁrst, that we can modify the term to account for the observed or the known part; that is, we deﬁne ∗ ≡ S ∗ − J t+L+l j ot s . j=1 s=t We observe that the reduction in base-stock level is larger with a decrease in the mean or the variance of the demand that is closer to the current period t, other factors being equal. A reduction in 8m (or 9m ) decreases ∗ more than a reduction in 8n (9n ) for t ≤ m < n ≤ N . This suggests that as more of the customers place their orders in advance, the system needs a lower safety stock (eventually, the safetystock level drops to zero if demand lead time for all customers is longer than the system lead time). Note that advance demand information reduces both the total mean and the safety stock (the last two terms in Equation (8)). This explicit solution also sheds light on the role of risk pooling in distribution systems. For a ﬁxed system lead time L + l, increasing L reduces ∗ . If we increase L to L + 1, the term inside the square root in Equation (8) decreases by J 2 − J 902 + · · · + 9L2 and all other terms remain the same. The gain due to risk pooling is larger for a system with several retailers that satisfy a more volatile demand. We also observe that an increase in retailer lead time l increases the uncertainty in the system more than an increase in supplier lead time L. Hence, the required safety stock is relatively larger for an increase in the retailer lead time. This discrepancy increases with the number of retailers in the system. In conclusion, Equation (8) suggests that while advance demand information can eliminate uncertainty by asking customers to place orders in advance, the risk pooling mitigates the effect of uncertainty Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

7.

Conclusion

In this paper, we study a distribution system with advance demand information. We show how to incorporate this new information structure and to better manage distribution systems. We propose a heuristic based on the solution of a lower bound problem. We illustrate that the heuristic, which is also used to show the beneﬁt of advance demand information, is close to optimal. We also show that all the existing results for distribution systems under demand uncertainty apply to our case if the inventory manager is interested only in incorporating advance demand information up to retailer lead times, plus one more review period. We show that systems with advance demand information end up having lower inventory levels and inventoryrelated costs. In this sense, advance demand information is a substitute for inventories as well as for production and shipment lead times. Finally, we provide an explicit solution for the system-wide inventory position. We also provide some insights into the role of risk pooling and advance demand information. As pointed out by Billington and Amaral (1999), strategic evaluation of design problems requires evaluation of alternatives to identify the one that creates the greatest value. Our model provides a framework to quantify the system performance with respect to the factors discussed in this paper such as risk pooling, advance demand information, warehouse location, shipment lead times and so forth. Acknowledgments

The author thanks an anonymous associate editor and the referees. The discussions during my presentations at the University of California–Berkeley, Columbia University, Stanford University were beneﬁcial. The suggestions and comments have considerably improved the exposition of this article.

Appendix A:

Proofs

Proof of Theorem 1. It is based on an induction argument and is similar to Aviv and Federgruen (2001a). First, we show

269

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

that the relaxation yields a dynamic programming (DP) recursion with a state space that aggregates the state variables across the retailers. We prove this ﬁrst for the terminal period T . To distinguish the DP under relaxation from the original one given in Equation (3), we refer to it as Jt and JT +1 ≡ 0. Note that for t = T , ot is a vector of zeros because we do not accept orders beyond T + l by assumption.

J j j 0 JT xT vT oT = cT wT + GT yT min j J j j wT y ' y −x =wT −L wT ≥0 T j=1 T T

j=1

=

cT0 wT

min

j wT YT 'YT = j x +wT −L wT ≥0 T

+ =

j wT YT 'YT = j x +wt−L wt ≥0 T

= VT

j

j

j

GT yT

cT0 wT + RT YT

j j y ' j y =YT j T T

min

min

j T

x vT OT

Now, assume that the theorem is true by induction for t + 1, and we have Vt+1 Xt+1 vt+1 Ot+1 = Jt+1 xt+1 vt+1 ot+1 . So, we have min

j J j j wt yt ' y −x =wt−L wt ≥0 j=1 t t

ct0 wt +

j

+ EVt+1 =

ct0 wt +

min

j wt Yt 'Yt = j xt +wt−L wt ≥0

j

j

min

j wt Yt 'Yt = j xt +wt−L wt ≥0

= Vt

j

j

yt −

min

t+l+1

j j yt ' j yt =Yt

s=t

Dts −Ott+l+1 Ot+1

j

j

j

Gt yt

ct0 wt +Rt Yt + EVt+1 Xt+1 vt+1 Ot+1

j

xt vt Ot

This proves the equivalence of Jt (the DP with relaxation) and Vt (the DP with the aggregate state space). Note that because we relax a constraint, the action space is larger than the previous case. This implies Jt xt vt ot ≤ Jt xt vt ot , which concludes the ﬁrst part of j j the theorem. Rt inherits the convexity property simply from Gt yt , concluding the proof. Proof of Theorem 2. By induction on t, we prove ﬁrst Parts 1–3. For t = T , HT y OT = cT0 y + RT y , which is convex in y for any given vector OT due to Theorem 1. Assume by induction that ∗ Part 1 is true for t +1. Let yt+1 Ot+1 be the smallest y that minimizes Ht+1 · Ot+1 . This implies the second part of the theorem; if x ≤ ∗ ∗ Ot+1 , then order up to yt+1 Ot+1 . Optimal value Vt+1 x Ot+1 + yt+1 ∗ c0t+1 x = Ht+1 maxx yt+1 Ot+1 Ot+1 . This function is increasing

270

≥ ct0 + =Rt x − 3

j

Gt yt

+ EVt+1 Xt+1 vt+1 Ot+1 =

=Ht x Ot + 3e1 = ct0 + =Rt x

+ E=Vt+1 x − Ot t+l+1 − 3 −

Jt xt vt ot =

convex in x because Ht+1 x Ot+1 is convex and increasing for x > ∗ yt+1 Ot+1 due to our induction hypothesis. To complete the induction argument for Parts 1–3, it sufﬁces to show that Part 1 is true for t. This follows from the deﬁnition of Ht and noticing that (1) the update Xt+1 is linear in x, (2) the composition of increasing convex function and a linear function is convex, (3) expectation (and summation) preserves convexity, and (4) Rt · is convex. Before addressing Parts 4–6, we prove a preliminary result. We deﬁne =hx y = hx + 1 y − hx y as the ﬁrst difference of function hx y . Remark 1. If f x and gx are two convex functions and xf , xg are the smallest minimizer of f · and g· , respectively, and =f x ≥ =gx , then xf ≤ xg Proof. Assume for a contradiction that xf > xg , we have =gxg − 1 < 0 ≤ =gxf − 1 ≤ =f xf − 1 The ﬁrst inequality is due to the optimality of xg . The second one is due to the assumption xf > xg . The third one is due to the statement =f x ≥ =gx . Then, we have =f xf − 1 > 0 but this contradicts the optimality of xf . Hence, xf ≤ xg . First, let us prove that yt∗ Ot + 3e1 − yt∗ Ot ≤ 3, that is Part 5 holds for j = 1 and for all t. We have for any x

+ E=Vt+1 x − Ot t+l+1 − 3 − = =Ht x − 3 Ot

t+l+1 s=t

t+l+1 s=t

Dt s Ot+1

Dt s Ot+1 (9)

The inequality is due to the convexity of Rt x . Note that the smallest minimizer of Ht x − 3 Ot is nothing but yt∗ Ot + 3. Also yt∗ Ot + 3e1 is the smallest minimizer of Ht · Ot + 3e1 , which is convex from Part 1. From inequality (9) and Remark 1, we conclude that yt∗ Ot + 3e1 ≤ yt∗ Ot + 3. Note that Ht yt∗ Ot Ot xt < yt∗ Ot (10) Vt x Ot = −ct0 x + H x O x ≥ yt∗ Ot t t Next, we prove =Vt x − 3 Ot ≤ =Vt x Ot + 3e1 for all t. To do this, we divide the domain of these two functions into four mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive cases. Case 1. If x − 3 < yt∗ Ot and x < yt∗ Ot + 3e1 , then =Vt x − 3 Ot = 0 −ct = =Vt x Ot + 3e1 . Case 2. If x − 3 < yt∗ Ot and x ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3e1 , then =Vt x − 3 Ot = −ct0 ≤ −ct0 +=Ht x Ot +3e1 = =Vt x Ot +3e1 . The inequality is due to the fact that Ht · Ot +3e1 is increasing for x ≥ yt∗ Ot +3e1 (which is due to Parts 1 and 2). Case 3. The case x − 3 ≥ yt∗ Ot and x < yt∗ Ot + 3e1 is not possible because we already showed that yt∗ Ot + 3e1 ≤ yt∗ Ot + 3. Case 4. If x − 3 ≥ yt∗ Ot and x ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3e1 , then =Vt x − 3 Ot = 0 −ct + =Ht x − 3 Ot ≤ −ct0 + =Ht x Ot + 3e1 = =Vt x Ot + 3e1 The inequality is due to Equation (9).

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

All four cases show that =Vt x − 3 Ot ≤ =Vt x Ot + 3e1 for all t. From the deﬁnition of Ht , the update Xt+1 , and the above cases we conclude that =Ht x Ot + 3e1 = −ct0 + =Rt x + E=Vt+1 x − Ot t+l+1 −3 − t+l+1 Dt s Ot+1 ≤ −ct0 +=Rt x + E=Vt+1 x −Ot t+l+1 − s=t t+l+1 Dt s Ot+1 + 3e1 = =Ht x Ot + 3e2 . s=t Next, we want to show by induction that

=Ht x Ot + 3ej ≤ =Ht x Ot + 3ej+1

(11)

is true also for all j > 1. Now, assume for an induction argument that it is true for an arbitrary j, then Part 1 and Remark 1 imply that Part 4 for j is true. To prove Equation (11) for j + 1, we ﬁrst prove =Vt x Ot + 3ej ≤ =Vt x Ot + 3ej+1 . For this, we consider only three cases because we already showed that yt∗ Ot + 3ej ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3ej+1 and use Equation (10). Case 1. If x ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3ej then =Vt x Ot + 3ej = −ct0 + =Ht x Ot + 3ej ≤ −ct0 + =Ht x Ot + 3ej+1 = =Vt x Ot + 3ej+1 . Case 2. If yt∗ Ot + 3ej > x ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3ej+1 , then =Vt x Ot + 3ej = −ct0 ≤ −ct0 + =Ht x Ot + 3ej+1 = =Vt x Ot + 3ej+1 because Ht x O is increasing for x ≥ yt∗ O . Case 3. If yt∗ Ot + 3ej+1 > x, then =Vt x Ot + 3ej = −ct0 = =Vt x Ot + 3ej+1 . The above three cases prove that =Vt x Ot + 3ej ≤ =Vt x Ot + 3ej+1 . From the deﬁnition of Ht , we obtain =Ht x Ot + 3ej+1 = −ct0 + =Rt x + E=Vt+1 x − Ott+l+1 − t+l+1 Dt s Ot+1 + 3ej ≤ −ct0 + t+l+1 s=t =Rt x + E=Vt+1 x − Ot t+l+1 − s=t Dt s Ot+1 + 3ej+1 = =Ht x Ot + 3ej+2 Note that due to the state variable update, the perturbation in the observed demand for 3ej+1 in period t becomes a perturbation of 3ej in period t + 1. This completes the induction argument for Equation (11) and the proof of Part 4. Recall that Part 5 for j = 1 was proved earlier. Hence, the result Part 5 for j > 1 immediately follows from Part 4 since yt∗ Ot +3ej −yt∗ Ot ≤ yt∗ Ot +3ej−1 − yt∗ Ot ≤ · · · ≤ yt∗ Ot + 3e1 − yt∗ Ot ≤ 3. The proof of Part 6 is similar to the Proof of Theorem 4, Part 5 in Gallego and Özer (2001). Proof of Lemma 1. The difference between V˜t and Vt consists of the costs during the periods t t +L. Note that the orders initiated at the beginning of period t will not arrive until the beginning of period t + L. Hence, the cost incurred between these periods is given by rt Xt vt Ot = Rt Xt + wt−L + ERt+1 Xt + wt−L + wt−L+1 − t+l+1 r+l+1 Dt s − Ot t+l+1 + · · · + L−1 ERt+L−1 Xt4 − t+L−2 Dr s − r=t s=r s=t t+L−2 Os s+l+1 This function is clearly independent of the decision s=t variables wt and yt .

Appendix B:

Derivation of S ∗

Under all four assumptions in §6, at the beginning of period t, the inventory manager monitors the system-wide inventory position and orders to bring this level up to S. Orders from the outside supplier arrive L periods later. The inventory to be allocated at j j time t + L is then given by S − V , where V = Jj=1 t+L−1 ot s + ut s . s=t Given the above assumptions, the expected costs charged to period t +L would be the same as period t +L+1 for all t. Hence, we focus

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

only on the single-period cost charged to period t + L. That is, j j E%hy˜t+L − W j + + py˜t+L − W j − & min j ∀j t+L

y˜

∀j

subject to

∀j

j y˜t+L = S − V

where y˜ j is the classical inventory position (that is, it is not yet j j modiﬁed) and W j = t+L+l s=t+L ot s + ut s . As in Zipkin (1982), introducing the Lagrange multiplier 7 and solving for the minimizers of the Lagrangian function, we obtain the optimal allocation for each retailer; that is, p−7 ∗ j yt+L = EW j + Var%W j [email protected] −1 p+h where @· is the cdf of standard normal. Note that from L our assumption (2), we have EW j = t+L+l 8 + s=t+L ot s + l + 1 L L+l k=0 k L+l 2 j k=L+1 L + l + 1 − k 8k and Var%W & = l + 1 k=0 9k + k=L+1 L + l + j 1 − k 9k2 . We sum ∗ yt+L across all retailers and equate it to S − V and solve for @ −1 p − 7 /p + h . By substituting this expression, we obtain j t+L+l S − V − Jj=1 t+L+l j s=t+L ot s ∗ j yt+L = ot s + J s=t+L j

If the inventory position at each retailer brought to ∗ yt+L , then the stock at the end of period t + L + l will be a random quantity and is given by ∗ j t+L

y

−Wj =

S−

J

j=1

t+L+l

s=t+L

J j

j

ot s

−

t+L+l

s=t+L

j

ut s +

J t+L−1 j 1 u J i=1 s=t t s

j

= s −A The expected single-period cost for each retailer j is Gj S = hEs j − A j + + pEs j − A j − , which is a function of S and the expectation is with respect to A j . Note that the minimizer of this function is achieved by choosing S such that P A j ≤ s j = p/p + h . From this, we have p s j − EA j z = @ −1 = p+h Var%A j & L 2 j where EA j = L+l k=0 L + l + 1 − k 8k and Var%A & = l + 1 k=0 9k + L+l 1 L 2 2 L + l + 1 − k 9 + L − k 9 . Solving for S, we obtain k=L+1 k=1 k k J the explicit solution in Equation (8), which is independent of j. This means that while it is a minimizer of Gj · , it is also a minimizer of ∀j Gj · . It is, therefore, the optimal system-wide order-up-to level.

References

Aviv, Y. 2002. A time series framework for supply chain inventory management. Oper. Res. Forthcoming. , A. Federgruen. 2001a. Capacitated multi-item inventory systems with random and seasonally ﬂuctuating demands: Implication for postponement strategies. Management Sci. 47 512–531.

271

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, . 2001b. Design for postponement: Apprehensive characterization of its beneﬁts under unknown demand distributions. Oper. Res. 49 578–598. Billington. C., J. Amaral. 1999. Investing in product design to maximize proﬁtability through postponement. http://www.ascet. com. Cachon, G. 2001. Supply chain coordination with contracts. Working paper, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Chen, F. 2000. Market segmentation, advance demand information and supply chain performance. Manufacturing Service Oper. Management 3(1) 53–67. . 2001. Information sharing and supply chain coordination. Working paper, Columbia University, New York. Dell, M. 2000. Direct from Dell: Strategies that Revolutionized an Industry. Harper Collins, New York. Eppen, G., L. Schrage. 1981. Centralized ordering policies in a multi-warehouse system with lead times and random demands. L. Schwarz, ed. Multi-Level Production/Inventory Control Systems: Theory and Practice. North-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 51–69. Erkip, N., W. H. Hausman, S. Nahmias. 1990. Optimal centralized ordering policies in multi-echelon inventory systems with correlated demands. Management Sci. 36 381–392. Federgruen, A. 1992. Centralized planning models for multiechelon inventory systems under uncertainty, Chapter 4. S. Graves, A. Rinnooy Kan, P. Zipkin, eds. Handbook Oper. Res. Management Sci., North-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 133–173. , P. Zipkin. 1984a. Approximations of dynamic, multi location production and inventory problems. Management Sci. 30 69–84. , . 1984b. Allocation policies and cost approximations for multi-location inventory systems. Naval Res. Logist. Quart. 31 97–129. , . 1984c. Computational issues in an inﬁnite horizon multi-echelon inventory model. Oper. Res. 32 818–832. Fox, B. 1966. Discrete optimization via marginal analysis. Management Sci. 4 36–153. Gallego, G., Ö. Özer. 2001. Integrating replenishment decisions with advance demand information. Management Sci. 47 1344–1360. , . 2002. Optimal use of demand information in supply chain management, Chapter 5. J. Song, D. Yao, eds. Supply Chain Structures: Coordination, Information and Optimization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 119–160.

Güllü, R. 1997. A two-echelon allocation model and the value of information under correlated forecasts and demands. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 99 386–400. Hariharan, R., P. Zipkin. 1995. Customer order information, lead times, and inventories. Management Sci. 41 1599–1607. Harvard Business School. 1991. Corning Glass Works: Erwin Automotive Plant. Harvard teaching case, 9-675-152, Boston, MA. Heath. D., P. Jackson. 1994. Modeling the evolution of demand forecasts with application to safety stock analysis in production/distribution systems. IIE Trans. 26 17–30. . 1988. Stock allocation in a two-echelon distribution system or “What to do until your ship comes in.” Management Sci. 34 880–895. Johnson, O., H. Thompson. 1975. Optimality of myopic inventory policies for certain depended processes. Management Sci. 21 1303–1307. Lee H. L., C. Billington, B. Carter. 1993. Hewlett-packard gains control of inventory and service through design for localization. Interfaces 23(4) 1–11. Özer, Ö., W. Wei. 2001. Inventory control with limited capacity and advance demand information. Working paper, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Schwarz L. B. 1989. Model for assessing the value of warehouse risk pooling: Risk pooling over outside supplier leadtimes. Management Sci. 35 828–842. Song, J.-S., P. Zipkin. 1993. Inventory control in ﬂuctuating demand environment. Oper. Res. 41 351–370. Stanford Graduate School of Business. 2001. Solectron: From contract manufacturer to global supply chain integrator. Teaching case GS-24, Stanford, CA. Veinott, A. 1965. Optimal policy for a multi-product, dynamic, non-stationary

inventory

problem.

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Sci.

12

206–222. . 1980. Teaching notes on inventory theory. Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Zipkin, P. 1982. Exact and approximate cost functions for product aggregates. Management Sci. 28 1002–1012. . 2000. Foundations of inventory management. The Irwin McGraw-Hill Series, Boston, MA.

Accepted by Fangruo Chen; received February 23, 2001. This paper was with the author 8 months for 2 revisions.

272

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

View more...
Department of Management Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 [email protected]

C

ustomers with positive demand lead times place orders in advance of their needs. A portfolio of customers with different demand lead times gives rise to what we call advance demand information. We develop effective inventory policies for a distribution system to account for this information. In particular, we study a centralized system with one warehouse serving multiple retailers under advance demand information. The inventory manager replenishes the warehouse from an outside supplier. Units arriving to the warehouse are allocated to the retailers. To control this system, we develop a lower bound and proposed a close-to-optimal heuristic for which the optimality gap is on average 192%. We also provide a closed-form solution to approximate the system-wide inventory level. Using this explicit solution, the model and the heuristic, we investigate (1) the beneﬁt of advance demand information, and its impact on allocation decisions, (2) the joint role of risk pooling and advance demand information, and (3) the system performance with respect to supplier and retailer lead times. We illustrate how advance demand information can be a substitute for lead times and inventory, and how it enhances the outcome of delayed differentiation. (Stochastic Inventory Systems; Advance Demand Information; Multi-Echelon; Distribution Systems; Supply Chain Management)

1.

Introduction and Literature Review

Advance demand information is obtained as customers place orders in advance of future demand requirements. Most inventory models treat customer demands as unanticipated events. Customers, however, often have different willingness to pay for the speed of delivery. A supply chain may improve its proﬁt by satisfying customers who are willing to pay higher prices for shorter demand lead times, and by offering price discounts to those customers who are willing to accept longer demand lead times.1 A portfolio of customers with different demand lead 1

A customer who places his order l periods in advance is said to have a demand lead time l.

0025-1909/03/4903/0255$5.00 1526-5501 electronic ISSN

times results in what we call advance demand information. Under this scenario, the demand for any future period will be progressively revealed. This requires the inventory manager to follow an adaptive replenishment strategy where part of the orders is placed in anticipation of the customers’ willingness to wait. Obtaining and sensibly using advance demand information enables companies to be more responsive to customer needs and improve inventory management. Strategies to elicit advance demand information include price incentives and/or priority service to customers who book early (Chen 2000). Advance demand information is often shared by downstream supply-chain partners through contractual agreements (Harvard Business School 1991). An original equipment manufacturer, for example, places orders Management Science © 2003 INFORMS Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003 pp. 255–272

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

and updates these orders over a time window to its contract manufacturer (Stanford GSB 2001). An option to customize often induces willingness to wait and results in advance demand information. A classical example is Dell’s distribution system (Dell 2000). Dell has a new initiative called “Intelligent Fulﬁllment,” which allows for four different levels of response time to customer orders: (1) standard (conventional; 5-day promised order lead time), (2) value delivery (slower; lower shipping cost), (3) premium delivery (if the order is in by 8:00 a.m.; next-day delivery by 10:30 a.m.), and (4) precision delivery (speciﬁc date). This broader choice for delivery mode and timing will presumably enhance Dell’s interaction with its customers, because customers have more choice in selecting delivery options and costs. This ﬂexibility also allows Dell to provide better service levels, because they can better optimize their own inventory and manufacturing needs based on speciﬁc customer needs.2 If appropriately used to derive inventory replenishment policies, advance demand information can be beneﬁcial. In this paper, we show how to achieve this for a two-level distribution system. Under the advance demand information model, the demand seen during any period t at retailer j j j j j j is given by dt = dt t dt t+1 dt t+N where dt s represents orders placed during period t for future period s at retailer j, and N is the information horizon beyond which the inventory manager does not collect advance demand information. We analyze a periodic-review distribution system consisting of a central warehouse and J retailers as illustrated in Figure 1. Each retailer satisﬁes the demand of their portfolio of customers that collectively gives rise to the advance demand information j vector dt . The replenishment decisions are centralized and based on system-wide information; that is, there is a unique inventory manager who controls the entire distribution system.3 The inventory manager replenishes retailers’ inventory through a central 2 On February 7, 2002, Richard Hunter from Dell announced this initiative during his presentation at Stanford University Global Supply-Chain Forum. 3

Notice that under centralized control, information sharing and coordination issues are not our concern. Reviews of these topics are provided by Cachon (2001) and Chen (2001).

256

Figure 1

Distribution System with Advance Demand Information

1

l Ample Supply

L

1 t,t

, d t1, t +1 ,..., d t1, t + N

)

Retailers

0 Warehouse

(d

l J

(d

J t, t

, d tJ, t +1 ,..., d tJ, t + N

)

warehouse. He orders from an outside supplier with ample stock to replenish the warehouse. Orders from the outside supplier and shipments to retailers arrive after ﬁxed lead times L and l, respectively. We assume that the warehouse is a coordination and repackaging or cross-docking center so it does not hold inventory. Unsatisﬁed demand at each location is fully backordered. A penalty cost is charged on back orders at the retailers. Holding cost is charged on ending inventories at each retailer as well as on inventories in transit. These systems are also known as coupled systems (Zipkin 2000). Traditional research on distribution systems view the customer demand process as static and exogenous in that the demand is modeled as a stationary process. Federgruen (1992) provides a comprehensive review on this topic, including the papers by Eppen and Schrage (1981), Federgruen and Zipkin (1984a, b, c), Jackson (1988), and Schwarz (1989). As pointed out by these authors, there are two distinct advantages of having a central warehouse. First, it enables the inventory manager to negotiate lower procurement costs from the outside supplier due to aggregating volume. Second, it enables the manager to gain through risk pooling (or statistical economies of scale).4 Risk pooling (for a system with a total replenishment lead time of L + l periods) can be considered as the inventory manager’s option to carry a single system inventory during the ﬁrst L periods instead of J individual inventories. Notice that risk pooling mitigates the demand uncertainty during the ﬁrst L periods, whereas advance demand information progressively eliminates the uncertainty in the system. Consider the case where all customers place orders N periods in 4

A term coined by Eppen and Schrage (1981).

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

advance such that N > L + l. In this case, the retailers do not need to carry any inventory. A more intriguing case is a distribution system that serves a portfolio of customers with different demand lead times as in the Dell example. In this paper, we take a step in the direction of incorporating a richer information structure obtained from customers. Our general goal is to understand how advance demand information affects the system— more speciﬁcally—how the system should be managed when advance demand information is available. We establish a close-to-optimal state dependent replenishment policy and show how it responds to the changes in customer demand. The state of the system is given by modiﬁed inventory positions for each retailer and observed demands beyond the retailer lead times.5 Under this policy, the inventory manager monitors the system-wide modiﬁed inventory position. If it is less than a state dependent base-stock level, than he orders to bring the modiﬁed inventory position up to this level. Incoming materials to the warehouse are disaggregated and shipped to the retailers based on the solution of a myopic problem. We show that the base-stock level is an increasing6 function of observed demand beyond the retailer lead times, and it is affected more by an increase in the observed demand that is closer to the current period. We examine the joint role of statistical economies of scale and advance demand information. We illustrate, for example, that advance demand information is a substitute for inventory as well as for supplier and retailer lead times. The results of this paper are necessary to understand the beneﬁt of advance demand information and quantify its impact on the distribution systems to design effective incentives. Establishing optimal policies for distribution systems, even in the absence of advance demand information, is computationally intractable. There are two approaches to solve this problem: approximation by relaxation as in Federgruen and Zipkin (1984a) and 5

Inventory positions are modiﬁed to subtract the known parts of the lead time demand. The observed demand information that is beyond the lead times is kept separately as a state variable. 6

We use the term increasing in the weak sense; that is, increasing means nondecreasing.

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

Aviv and Federgruen (2001a), and approximation by restriction as in Eppen and Schrage (1981) and Federgruen and Zipkin (1984b). The ﬁrst approach considers relaxing a constraint set to obtain a simpler problem with lower-dimensional state space. It develops a heuristic based on this lower bound problem to solve the original problem. The second approach restricts the policy space to a class of policies and optimizes over this class under additional assumptions. The restriction approach, unlike the relaxation approach, does not guarantee any bound on the optimal solution. We employ both approaches here. Using the relaxation approach, we provide a close-tooptimal replenishment strategy. We also carry out a numerical study (170 instances) to gauge the sensitivity of the replenishment strategy with respect to problem parameters and to show that the optimality gap is fairly tight (on average 1.92%). Finally, using the restriction approach, we provide a closed-form solution for the system-wide base-stock level. The numerical results and the closed-form solution enable us to address issues that arise in the design of production and distribution systems. It is important to understand, for example, how the beneﬁt of advance demand information and risk pooling change as one locates the warehouse closer to the retailers or how reductions in lead times affect system performance. Some of these (re)designs may require investments in new processing plans or using faster but more expensive shipment modes. Marketing strategies such as the option to customize or promotions may result in advance demand information. It is important, therefore, to compare the beneﬁts with the costs of these actions. Our model enables us to characterize the system performance (in terms of inventory management costs) with respect to such changes in the system. For example, in a distribution system with L + l = 3, moving the warehouse from a location closer to the supplier (L = 0 l = 3) to a location closer to the retailers (L = 2 l = 1) reduces costs 202% without advance demand information and 1214% with advance demand information (see Table 6). A group of researchers has addressed distribution systems under nonstationary demands. Erkip et al. (1990) and Güllü (1997) extend the model of Eppen 257

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

and Schrage (1981), respectively, incorporating a correlation structure through the use of an index variable that follows autoregressive time series process and a forecast process. All these authors restrict the policy space to a constant, base-stock level, hence these policies do not fully use the information obtained through the demand process. In contrast, Song and Zipkin (1993) incorporate Markov modulated demand process in multiechelon inventory systems and evaluate the performance of a state-dependent base-stock policy that depends on the underlying Markov process. In a recent paper, Aviv and Federgruen (2001b) incorporate a Bayesian framework to the demand process. By doing so, they introduce the additional beneﬁt, learning effect, of having a central warehouse. The ability to obtain information about the demand during the ﬁrst L periods enables updating the demand process, hence resulting in improved allocation to retailers.7 The distribution system described here can also be interpreted as a multi-item production/distribution system with a common intermediate product. In this interpretation, the warehouse represents the differentiation point. During the ﬁrst phase of the production period, L, a common batch is produced. At the end of this period, the manager must decide on how much of each differentiated item to produce from the batch of the common intermediate product. This interpretation forms the basis of postponement strategies; see the papers by Lee et al. (1993), Aviv and Federgruen (2001a, b), and the literature therein. A special case of this problem, where L = 0 was studied by Veinott (1965). He investigates conditions that ensure the optimality of base-stock policies. Through a numerical example, we illustrate how advance demand information increases the beneﬁt gained through postponement strategies. The relaxation approach yields a lower bound problem that can be interpreted as a single-stage inventory control problem. A number of researchers incorporate the dynamic nature of demand, to single location inventory problems (Johnson and Thompson 1975, Song and Zipkin 1993, Heath and Jackson 1994, Gallego and Özer 2001, Aviv 2002). For a more 7

The authors discuss this in the context of a multi-item system.

258

detailed review on the use of demand information, we refer the reader to Gallego and Özer (2002). The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In §2, we introduce the demand model and the dynamic programming formulation. In §3, we apply the relaxation approach to obtain a lower bound model. We establish the optimality of a state-dependent basestock policy ﬁrst for the L = 0 case followed by L > 0. We do this to separate the effect of advance demand information from that of risk pooling. In §4, we propose a heuristic to control ordering and shipping decisions for the system. In §5, we conduct a numerical study of several problem instances. First, we report on the performance of the heuristic. Next, we provide insights into a set of design problems and the beneﬁts of advance demand information. In §6, we apply the restriction approach and state our assumptions to provide a closed-form solution for the system-wide basestock level. In §7, we conclude and suggest directions for future research. All the proofs are in the appendix.

2.

Model Formulation

During any period t, retailer j’s customers either purchase the product or place an order for a future period s ∈ t t + N . From the view point of the inventory manager, the demand observed at each retailer j j j j j is a vector: dt ≡ dt t dt t+N where dt s is the demand for period s observed during period t and N < is the length of the information horizon. We assume that these demand vectors are completely revealed at the end of period t. Our analysis requires that the demand vector across time be independent, but could be nonstationary. The demand vector across retailers and within the demand vector could also be correlated. We do not require differentiability and, hence the results apply to both the discrete and the continuous demand case. Under this demand model at the beginning of each period t, the demand to be realized at retailer j during a future period s ∈ t t + N − 1 can be divided into two parts as illustrated in Figure 2: the observed j j and known part ot s ≡ t−1 r=s−N dr s and the unobserved j j and unknown part ut s ≡ sr=t dr s Notice that our demand model can incorporate random order quantities and desired fulﬁllment dates. Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Figure 2

Observed and Unobserved Part of the Demand

d sj− N, s , d sj− N + 1, s ,..., dt j−1, s

observed part:

s- N j

...

t -1

t

...

s

s+1

d t j, s , d t j+1, s ,..., d sj, s:unobserved j

Let Nt be the number of customers that arrive to retailer j at period t. Assume that customer k demands a random quantity Qt k to be delivered at a random fulﬁllment date st k ∈ t t + N . Then, Nt j Qt k Ist k = s , where I· is an indicator dt s = k=1 function. Hariharan and Zipkin (1995) refer to st k − s as the demand lead time and study a single location problem, where all customers have constant demand lead times. Our demand model can be viewed as a periodic review generalization of Hariharan and Zipkin (1995) to the case of random demand lead times. The sequence of events is as follows: (1) the invenj j tory manager reviews It on-hand inventory, Bt back j orders, the pipeline inventory, and ot s , the observed part of the demand for periods s ∈ t t + 1 t + N − 1 for each retailer.8 He decides on (i) whether or not to place an order, wt ≥ 0, from an outside supplier, and (ii) how to allocate the incoming batch among the retailers, zj ≥ 0. It takes L ≥ 0 periods to receive the orders from an outside supplier and l > 0 periods to receive the shipments allocated to retailers. The total shipment to the retailers is equal J j to the incoming orders to the warehouse, j=1 zt = wt−L because the warehouse does not hold any inventory. The manager incurs a linear ordering and shipJ j j ping cost ct0 wt + j=1 ct zt . (2) The shipments placed at period t − l arrive at the retailers. (3) Demand vectors for period t at each retailer are realized. The demand for period t is satisﬁed from on-hand inventory, otherwise it is backlogged. (4) The manager incurs holding and penalty cost at each retailer based on the end-ofperiod net inventory. 8

j

ot s ≡ 0 for s ≥ t + N because we do not observe demand information beyond the information horizon.

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

Notice that the allocation decision has an impact on retailer j’s holding and penalty cost only after l periods. The inventory manager should, therefore, protect the retailer against the lead time demand, which is deﬁned as the total demand realized over periods t t + 1 t + l. We use the standard accounting mechanism and charge period t with the expected inventory costs incurred at period t + l. The net inventory at the end of period t + l is given by inventory on-hand at period t plus the inventory in the pipeline, including the order just allocated to the retailer minus the backlogs minus the realized demand during the lead time. Notice that unlike the classical case (where the information horizon N = 0), we can divide the lead time demand at retailers into two parts: the observed part and the unobserved part, t+l j t+l j s=t ot s + s=t ut s We designate a set of new inventory variables to account for the known part. That is, we deﬁne j

xt = modiﬁed inventory position before shipment decision t+l t−1 j j j = It + zjs − Bt − ot s for all j ∈ 1 J s=t−l

j yt

s=t

= modiﬁed inventory position after shipment decision j

j

= xt + zt for all j ∈ 1 J These variables differ from classical inventory variables in that they subtract the observed part of the lead time demand, hence the name modiﬁed. This enables us to reduce the dimension of the state space of the dynamic programming algorithm. The expected holding and penalty cost charged to period t for retailer j is given by t+l j j j j j l G˜ t yt = Egt yt − ut s s=t

where is the discount factor and the expectation is with respect to the unobserved part of the demand realized during periods t through t + l. For all t and j j, we assume that gt is convex, that G˜ t exists, and ˜ that lim x → Gx = (these are standard assumptions in the inventory literature). All these assumptions, for example, are satisﬁed for a linear holding 259

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

j

j

cost ht per item, and a linear penalty cost pt per back order. The expected holding and penalty cost charged to period t for retailer j for this example would be t+l j − j j j j j j j + G˜ t yt = l Eht %yt − t+l s=t ut s & + pt %yt − s=t ut s & The state of the system is given by three vectors: J

xt ' xt1 xt

vt ' wt−L wt−1 J

ot ' ot1 ot2 ot j

where ot is the observed demand informaj tion beyond retailer j’s lead time; that is, ot = j j j ot t+l+1 ot t+N −1 . Notice that the vector ot exists only for N > l + 1. This vector holds the observed part of the demand information that is not subsumed in the modiﬁed inventory position. The vector vt is the pipeline inventory between the supplier and the warehouse. After making the order and shipment decisions and j j j observing the demand vectors dt = dt t dt t+N at each retailer, the manager updates the modiﬁed inventory positions by j

j

j

j

xt+1 = xt + zt − dt t −

t+l+1 s=t+1

j

j

dt s − ot t+l+1

(1)

and the vector of observed demand beyond the lead time by j

j

j

ot+1 = ot+1 t+l+2 ot+1 t+N j

j

(2)

j

where ot+1 s = ot s + dt s . The solution to the following dynamic programming algorithm minimizes the cost of managing this two-level distribution system for a ﬁnite horizon with T − t periods remaining to the termination: Jt xt vt ot =

wt yt '

J

j

min j

j=1 yt −xt =wt−L yt ≥xt wt ≥0

ct0 wt +

J j=1

j

j

Gt yt

+ EJt+1 xt+1 vt+1 ot+1 (3) j j j j j j j where Gt yt = ct − ct+1 yt + G˜ t yt and JT +1 · · · ≡ 0 and the expectation is with respect to the demand j vectors dt . The formal construction of this dynamic program is similar to Gallego and Özer (2001).

260

We remark that if the inventory manager wishes to incorporate advance demand information only up to the next l + 1 periods for all retailers, then the state space would be similar to that of classical distribution systems (as in Federgruen and Zipkin 1984a). All proposed heuristics to solve the classical distribution system and the reported performance measures would apply to this special case. The inventory manager would only need to update his inventory position to account for the observed part and use modiﬁed inventory positions instead. From this point, on we consider only the problem where N > l + 1.

3.

Lower Bound Model

The state space for the dynamic program in Equation (3) is of dimension J + L + J N − l − 1 + . It is impractical to deal with such a large state space. Even in the absence of advance demand information, the classical distribution system runs into the problem of “dimensionality.” In this section, we develop a lower bound approximation that has a lower-dimensional state space by relaxing the constraint yt ≥ xt . We conclude by establishing the optimality of a state dependent base-stock policy for the lower bound problem. Relaxing the constraint yt ≥ xt means that shipments can be a negative quantity as long as the total shipments from the warehouse is equal to the incoming orders. This can be interpreted as: If the inventory (pipeline and on-hand) at some retailers are high, some of this excess can be transferred to other retailers at no cost. Similarly, if the observed part of the lead time demand (this could be interpreted as retailers’ commitment) is excessive, part of this demand can be satisﬁed through other retailers that have high-modiﬁed inventory position at no cost. Under this relaxation, all retailers collapse into an aggregate retailer. The state space of this new relaxed problem will be based on aggregate quantities. Let Dt s = Ot s =

J j=1 J j=1

j

dt s j

ot s

Xt =

J j=1

Ut s =

j

xt

J j=1

j

ut s

We use the convention of capital letters to indicate the aggregation across all retailers. The state space of Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

the relaxed dynamic program is given only by the aggregate quantities Xt , vt , and Ot = Ot t+l+1 Ot t+N −1 . The dynamic programming recursion below solves this aggregate retailer problem and provides a lower bound for the original distribution system. Theorem 1. For all xt vt ot , the relaxation results in a dynamic programming algorithm with the state space aggregated across all retailers and is given by Vt Xt vt Ot =

min

wt Yt ' wt ≥0 Yt =Xt +wt−L

ct0 wt + Rt Yt

+ EVt+1 Xt+1 vt+1 Ot+1

(4)

where VT +1 ≡ 0, the update for Xt is given by Xt+1 = Yt − t+l+1 Dt s − Ot t+l+1 and s=t J J j j j (5) Rt Yt = min Gt yt ' yt = Yt j

∀yt

j=1

j=1

The solution to this DP is a lower bound to the solution of Jt xt vt ot deﬁned in (3). In addition, Rt Yt is convex and lim Yt → Rt Yt = . Yt represents the sum of all retailers’ modiﬁed inventory positions, plus the order that has just arrived to the warehouse at period t. Hence, function Rt is the minimum cost of managing retail inventories given Yt , assuming that the retail inventories can be rebalanced instantaneously and at no cost. We differentiate next the two cases: a negligible supplier lead time L = 0 and a positive supply lead time L > 0. This helps us determine the impact of advance demand information on the system independent of the effect of risk pooling. 3.1. Lower Bound Problem When L = 0 The distribution system without advance demand information and with zero supply lead time beneﬁts only through its ability to negotiate lower procurement prices (Eppen and Schrage 1981). The dynamic program for this case is given by Vt Xt Ot = −ct0 Xt + min Ht Yt Ot Yt ≥Xt

where Ht Yt Ot ≡ ct0 y + Rt y + EVt+1 xt+1 Ot+1 , Dt s − VT +1 ≡ 0, and the update is Xt+1 = Yt − t+l+1 s=t Ot t+l+1 . Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

In Theorem 2, we establish ﬁrst, the optimality of state-dependent base-stock policy and characterize its behavior. Under this policy, the warehouse orders whenever the system-wide modiﬁed inventory position falls below a base-stock level. We show that the optimal base-stock level is increasing in observed demand beyond the retailer lead time l. In particular, an increase in the observed demand beyond the retailer lead time that is closer to the current period increases the base-stock level more than the one that is far out in the future. Furthermore, this increase in the base-stock level is never more than the increase in the observed demand. To show this, we deﬁne ej as the N − l − 1 -dimensional unit vector whose jth element is 1. By adding 3ej to the vector, Ot is equivalent to increasing the cumulative observed demand in the period that is j periods beyond the lead time by 3 units, that is Ot t+l+j + 3. Theorem 2. The following statements are true for any vector Ot , 3 > 0, and for all t: (1) Ht x Ot is convex, (2) A state dependent base-stock policy is optimal. The base-stock level is given by yt∗ Ot ≡ miny ' Ht x Ot ≥ Ht y Ot for all x = y (3) Vt x Ot + ct0 x is an increasing convex function, (4) yt∗ Ot + 3ej ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3ej+1 for j = 1 N − l − 2 (5) yt∗ Ot + 3ej − yt∗ Ot ≤ 3 for j = 1 N − l − 1, and (6) yt∗ Ot ≥ yt∗ Ot for all Ot ≥ Ot .9 These results delineate the distribution systems response with respect to observed demands beyond the retailer lead time. The system responds by increasing the base-stock level if there is demand to come in the future. The manager is more likely to order in that case and when he does, he orders a larger quantity. These kinds of monotonicity results also limit the search for optimal policy parameters, hence improving the computational work required to solve largescale problems. 9

For two vectors Ot and Ot , Ot ≥ Ot if and only if each element of Ot is greater than or equal to the corresponding element of Ot .

261

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

3.2. Lower Bound Problem when L > 0 We apply an accounting scheme to subtract pipeline inventory from the supplier to the warehouse. This scheme was introduced by Veinott (1965, 1980) in the context of single location problems and was applied to distribution systems ﬁrst by Federgruen and Zipkin (1984a). If we initiate an order from the outside supplier at the beginning of period t, it will arrive to the warehouse by the beginning of period t +L. Consequently, the total modiﬁed inventory position, plus the order that has just arrived to be rebalanced at period t + L is given by j Yt+L = xt+L + wt j

= Xt4 + wt − Yt4

t+L−1 r+l+1 r=t

s=r

Dr s −

t+L−1 s=t

Os s+l+1 j

We obtain the second equality by substituting xt+L j for the update (1) and ws−L for j zs , and deﬁning the system-wide modiﬁed inventory position at period ws−t . The dynamic program is t as Xt4 = Xt + t+L−1 s=t given by V˜t Xt4 Ot = −ct0 Xt4 + min Ht Yt4 Ot Yt4 ≥Xt4

(6)

4 where Ht y Ot = ct0 y + L ERt+L y + E V˜t+1 Xt+1 t+l+1 4 ˜ Ot+1 , Xt+1 = y − s=t Dt s −Ot t+l+1 , and VT +1 ≡ 0. We have

Lemma 1. V˜t Xt4 Ot = Vt Xt vt Ot +rt Xt vt Ot This result states that the algorithm in (6) is similar to the one in (4), except the constant term rt , which is deﬁned in the appendix. This term is independent of order and shipment decisions, hence it can be dropped for optimization purposes. We remark that Theorem 2 also applies to the above dynamic programming algorithm.

4.

Proposed Heuristic

We decide on the aggregate order quantity based on a state-dependent base-stock level obtained from the solution of the lower bound problem. The aggregate order quantity is given by wt Ot ≡ yt∗ Ot − Xt4 This quantity depends on the observation beyond the 262

aggregate retailer lead time as elaborated in Theorem 2. In this sense, the lower bound problem makes full use of advance demand information. Next, we decide on how to allocate the incoming order, wt−L . We allocate this order to retailers based on the solution of the following allocation problem:

J J j j min Git yti ' yt − xt = wt−L yt ≥ xt (7) j=1

j=1

This allocation is referred to as myopic for two reasons. First, it minimizes the total expected cost of managing the retailer inventories at the end of period t + l (the period when the allocations are available for the retailer) and ignores the impact of this allocation on other periods. Second, it does not take into consideration the observed demand information beyond the retailers’ lead time (unlike the lower bound). Notice that this is a feasible solution to the original problem, hence it is an upper bound. In our numerical study, we use a greedy algorithm both to solve the myopic allocation and to evaluate Rt Yt deﬁned in Equation (5). To solve the allocation problem, we start with yti = xti and allocate one unit at a time to the jth retailer with the smallest current j value of the ﬁrst difference (that is, minj Gt y + 1 − j Gt y ) until all wt−L is allocated. To evaluate Rt Yt , J j j we start with Rt j=1 ∗ yt , where ∗ yt is the minimum j of Gt · and allocate the difference Yt − Yt∗ , if positive, one unit at a time to the jth retailer with the smallest current value of the ﬁrst difference. Otherwise, we reduce the amount allocated one unit at a time from the jth retailer with the largest current value of the j j ﬁrst difference (that is, maxj Gt y − Gt y − 1 ). Similar algorithms are used by Fox (1966), Federgruen and Zipkin (1984a, b), Zipkin (2000), and Aviv and Federgruen (2001a). We remark that a capacitated distribution system, in which a warehouse is allowed to process up-to a limited quantity, can be solved by using the replenishment policy in Özer and Wei (2001) together with a myopic allocation.

5.

Numerical Study

First, we compare the solution of the lower bound (LB) problem to the solution of the proposed heuristic Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

(upper bound (UB)). We report the difference as percentage error, 3% = UB − LB /LB, which is a measure of the suboptimality for the heuristic. A small value indicates that the heuristic is close to optimal and that the lower bound is accurate. We use a backward induction algorithm to solve the LB problem (6) and to obtain the optimal system base-stock level yt∗ Ot and the associated cost. All cases considered have linear holding, back ordering costs, and uniform rates. We simulate the system to estimate the cost of the proposed heuristic. We run several replications to have a 95% conﬁdence interval. We compute both the lower bound and the heuristic for a ﬁnite horizon of length T . Classical literature on distribution systems minimize average cost as an objective, but notice that this is an approximation for a ﬁnite horizon system. We j set each retailers’ initial inventory to I0 = y0∗ O0 /J j and o0 ≡ 0. We compare the simulation outcome with the cost of the LB for which the initial state is X04 = j j I0 . We conclude by providing some insights into strategic questions that may arise in the design of distribution systems. We use Poisson random variables to model the j demand vector. That is, dt s is Poisson with mean j 7s−t . In many practical situations, demand behaves like a Poisson process, in particular, when the demand comes from many small nearly independent sources such as individual customers spread across a large region (Zipkin 2000, p. 179). We discuss the possible effects of other distributions on our numerical results. The following example clariﬁes how we model different advance demand information scenarios. Example. Assume that information horizon for a two-retailer distribution system is two periods (N = 2). Let t be the current period. The demand vector to be realized during period t for retailer j is j j j dt t dt t+1 dt t+2 . The total demand that is going to j be realized during period s > t + 2 is equal to ds−2 s + j j j j j ds−1 s + ds s , which is Poisson with mean 72 + 71 + 70 . By increasing this sum, one increases the variance of the demand seen by retailer j at each period. During j period s −2, ds−2 s is realized and the remaining uncerj j tainty is only due to ds−1 s + ds s . Now consider the following scenarios: Under the ﬁrst scenario, assume that the retailers are incapable of obtaining demand information in advance. To reﬂect this case, we model Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

the demand vector by Poisson random variables with j j j means 70 > 0 and 71 = 72 ≡ 0. Now assume that all customers place their demand one period in advance, j j that is 70 = 72 ≡ 0 and 71 > 0. Finally, assume that all customers place orders two periods in advance. This j j j case is modeled by 70 = 71 ≡ 0 and 72 > 0. Any other advance demand information scenario can be similarly modeled. We consider the number of retailers, advance demand information scenario, supplier lead time L, retailer lead time l, length of the planning horizon T , and the cost structure h p c to be the drivers of our numerical study. Throughout the numerical study, we set N = l + 2. For this case, the LB problem is two-dimensional and Ot is a scalar that is equal to Dt−1 t+l+1 . We use the following set of parameters: h = 005 1 2

p = 1 5 19

c = 05 10 30

T = 50 75

L = 0 1 2

l = 1 2 3

J = 2 5 6 8 12

N = l+2

We study a total of 170 instances. The ﬁrst part of our numerical study addresses 110 instances in which the retailers are identical. The second part addresses 16 instances in which retailers differ in their advance demand information scenarios. We refer to this as information imbalance. The ﬁnal part (44 instances) focuses on distribution system design experiments. 5.1. Performance of the Heuristic The average optimality gap is 192% for the ﬁrst group (110 instances). Within this group, the ﬁrst set consists of 44 experiments in which the retailer lead time is l = 1 (see Table 1). The second set consists of 34 experiments in which l = 2 (see Table 2). Within each set, we address a subset of distribution systems with 2, 5, and 8 retailers. For each of these subsets, we address different advance demand information scenarios starting with the case of no advance demand information 70 > 0 0 0 . To observe the impact of the planning horizon on the error term, we divide this group into 90 experiments with T = 50 periods and 20 experiments with T = 75 periods (see Table 3). The error term is relatively insensitive with respect to the number of retailers (see Tables 1 and 2). The average error term for a system with two retailers is 242%, whereas for ﬁve retailers, it is 246%. On the 263

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Table 1

Identical Retailers with l = 1 T = 50 h = 1 p = 19 c = 10 L = 0 l = 1

# ret

0 1 2 3

yt 0

LB

2

(1 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0) (0 0 1 0) (0 0 0 1)

10 6 0 0

2334 37 2246 96 2019 98 1979 98

2

(2 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0) (0 0 2 0) (0 0 0 2)

16 10 0 0

2

(3 0 0 0) (0 3 0 0) (0 0 3 0) (0 0 0 3)

5

L = 1 l = 1 %

yt 0

LB

2339 35 ± 8 36 2262 36 ± 8 60 2080 94 ± 8 15 2021 17 ± 8 03

0.21 0.69 3.02 2.08

12 8 5 0

2366 46 2301 18 2176 00 1999 98

2384 94 ± 7 01 2312 45 ± 7 35 2268 14 ± 7 96 2021 73 ± 8 13

0.78 0.49 4.23 1.09

4464 43 4350 36 4040 00 3960 00

4484 98±16 50 4386 63±16 28 4154 84±16 39 4036 72±16 04

0.46 0.83 2.84 1.94

20 14 8 0

4510 93 4411 44 4250 93 4000 00

4583 41±13 39 4496 25±14 46 4407 20±15 85 4036 74±16 04

1.61 1.92 3.68 0.92

20 12 0 0

6578 31 6430 64 6060 00 5940 00

6633 18±27 76 6506 48±25 21 6237 25±23 68 6056 99±23 39

0.83 1.18 2.92 1.97

27 19 10 0

6633 07 6508 76 6317 61 6000 00

6770 31±19 22 6550 34±21 95 6532 37±22 99 6056 99±23 99

2.07 0.64 3.40 0.95

(1 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0) (0 0 1 0) (0 0 0 1)

25 15 0 0

5831 99 5613 31 5050 00 4950 00

5844 02±20 78 5651 03±21 49 5199 71±20 46 5050 39±20 05

0.21 0.67 2.96 2.03

28 20 9 0

5880 04 5676 92 5282 65 5000 00

5969 95±18 81 5748 55±18 69 5560 32±19 87 5050 39±20 04

1.53 1.26 5.26 1.01

5

(2 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0) (0 0 2 0) (0 0 0 2)

40 25 0 0

11157 24 10872 45 10100 00 9900 00

11208 12±41 14 10958 28±40 66 10382 87±40 93 10085 02±40 25

0.46 0.79 2.80 1.87

48 34 15 0

11220 13 10938 67 10428 50 10000 00

11445 59±34 36 11275 13±36 47 10819 59±39 90 10085 02±40 25

2.01 3.08 3.75 0.85

8

(1 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0)

40 24

9329 16 8979 10

9346 49±33 23 9039 91±34 35

0.19 0.68

45 32

9385 09 9055 15

9530 97±26 54 9194 52±29 95

1.55 1.54

Table 2

UB

0 1 2 3 4

yt∗ 0

LB

2

(2 0 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0 0) (0 0 2 0 0) (0 0 0 2 0) (0 0 0 0 2)

20 16 10 0 0

4562 49 4464 43 4350 36 4040 00 3960 00

2

(3 0 0 0 0) (0 3 0 0 0) (0 0 3 0 0) (0 0 0 3 0) (0 0 0 0 3)

28 20 12 0 0

5

(2 0 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0 0) (0 0 2 0 0) (0 0 0 2 0) (0 0 0 0 2)

8

(1 0 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0 0)

264

%

Identical Retailers with l = 2 T = 50 h = 1 p = 19 c = 10 L = 0 l = 2

# ret

UB

L = 1 l = 2 %

yt∗ 0

LB

4631 83 ± 13 5 4619 68±14 42 4465 10±16 50 4346 72±17 92 4221 89±17 54

1.52 3.48 2.64 7.59 6.61

25 20 14 8 0

4596 42 4510 59 4411 44 4250 93 4000 00

4661 59±13 04 4589 65±13 46 4498 63±14 49 4405 26±15 82 4034 27±16 87

1.42 1.75 1.98 3.63 0.86

6683 13 6578 31 6430 64 6060 00 5940 00

6856 66±20 07 6776 52±22 06 6695 28±24 43 6518 77±27 12 6332 72±26 72

2.60 3.01 4.12 7.57 6.61

35 27 19 10 0

6727 57 6633 07 6508 76 6317 61 6000 00

6861 76±18 70 6774 65±20 25 6680 26±21 95 6526 16±24 05 6051 19±26 13

1.99 2.13 2.63 3.30 0.85

50 40 25 0 0

11401 62 11157 24 10872 45 10100 00 9900 00

11576 24±34 06 11546 42±36 45 11159 42±41 72 10861 80±44 61 10553 79±44 61

1.53 3.49 2.64 6.60 6.60

62 48 34 15 15

11429 87 11220 13 10938 67 10428 50 10000 00

11625 79±33 08 11462 04±34 91 11281 37±36 93 10820 00±40 30 10086 72±40 78

1.71 2.16 3.13 3.75 0.87

48 40

9589 64 9329 16

9621 13±26 95 9570 88±27 98

0.33 2.59

57 45

9633 83 9385 09

9678 64±28 23 9560 79±28 84

0.47 1.87

UB

UB

%

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Table 3

Identical Retailers Where T = 75 h = 1 p = 19 c = 10 L = 0 l = 1

# ret

L = 1 l = 1

0 1 2 3

yt 0

LB

UB

%

yt 0

LB

UB

%

2

(1 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0)

10 6

3,506.85 3,370.28

3511 59±12 05 3385 43±12 90

0.14 0.45

12 8

3,552.66 3,449.15

3590 62±10 44 3455 32±11 21

1.07 0.18

2

(2 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0) (0 0 2 0) (0 0 0 2)

16 10 0 0

6,698.05 6,522.85 6,040.00 5,960.00

6713 59±24 56 6552 81±24 12 6150 45±24 14 6030 73±23 75

0.23 0.46 1.83 1.19

20 14 8 0

6,764.51 6,611.16 6,367.74 6,000.00

6882 15±19 93 6742 11±21 52 6601 45±23 58 6030 73±23 75

1.74 1.98 3.67 0.51

L = 0 l = 2

L = 1 l = 2

2

(1 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0)

12 10

3,600.28 3,506.85

3611 36±10 08 3593 78±10 43

0.31 2.48

15 12

3,642.62 3,552.67

3690 84 ± 9 94 3591 41±10 07

1.32 1.09

2

(2 0 0 0) (0 2 0 0)

20 16

6,839.83 6,698.05

6930 89±20 24 6914 66±21 67

1.33 3.23

25 20

6,893.59 6,764.51

6992 11±19 58 6888 76±20 22

1.43 1.84

other hand, increasing the retailer lead times seems to increase the error term. The average gap is 167% for the set l = 1 and it is 309% for the set l = 2. We believe that this is due to the larger uncertainty introduced to the system by longer retailer lead time. Recall that the heuristic cannot reallocate the imbalances in modiﬁed inventory positions at each retailer, whereas the lower bound can. The comparison of the experiments in Table 3 with their counterparts in Tables 1 and 2 shows that the error term is decreasing as we increase the planning horizon. This suggests that under average cost criterion, the heuristic would more likely better perform. We observe an increase followed by a decrease in the error term as the inventory manager obtains demand information further in advance. Consider, for example, the initial set of experiments in Table 1. The error 302% corresponds to the case where retailers learn their demand two periods in advance. The LB problem makes better use of advance demand information than the UB (the heuristic), hence we observe an increase in the error term (as discussed in more detail after Equation (7)). In Table 4, in which we address systems with retailers facing different advance demand information scenarios, the average error is 371%. The maximum error was 132% for a distribution system L = 0 l = 2 with two retailers, one of which has no advance demand information while the other obtains demand information four periods in advance. This case represents the maximum possible Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

information imbalance that this distribution system can face. We also observe that the error term decreases as the number of balanced retailers in the system increases. One ﬁnal observation is that as we increase the mean which is also the variance, the optimality gap tends to increase. Together with the numerical results reported in Aviv and Federgruen (2001a) and Federgruen and Zipkin (1984a, b), we expect an increase in the error term if we use demand distributions with larger coefﬁcient of variation. These observations suggest that the heuristic should perform fairly well for problems where 1 the retailer lead time is short relative to the supplier lead times, 2 the number of balanced retailers in the system is large, 3 the planning horizon is long, and 4 the demand variation is modest. 5.2.

Advance Demand Information as a Substitute for Inventory Distribution systems that incorporate advance demand information carry less inventory and are subject to lower holding and penalty costs than otherwise equivalent systems (observed from all experiments in Tables 1–6). Consider, for example, the case L = l = 1 in Table 5. The percentage decrease in inventory-related cost (the LB) due to advance demand information between the ﬁrst experiment (in which none of the customers places orders in advance) and the sixth experiment (in which all customers during each period t place orders for period 265

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Table 4

Only Retailer 1 Obtains ADI T = 50 h = 1 p = 19 c = 10 0 1 2 3

L = 0 l = 1

L = 1 l = 1

# ret

ret j = 1

ret j = 1

yt 0

LB

UB

%

yt 0

LB

UB

%

2

1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0

11 13

2366 61 4472 77

2398 63 ± 7 01 4472 77±17 72

1 35 1 49

10 17

2327 89 4457 78

2352 83 ± 7 53 4549 11±14 02

1 07 2 05

5

2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0

0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2

37 32

11100 16 10903 07

11245 02±44 14 11654 60±59 44

1 31 6 89

46 39

11153 24 10975 78

11396 35±34 78 11235 09±39 92

2 18 2 36

0 1 2 3 4

L = 0 l = 2

L = 1 l = 2

2

2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0

0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

18 10

4513 27 4258 37

4639 86±30 13 4820 45±29 93

2 80 13 20

22 13

4557 88 4311 23

4619 59±14 35 4854 37±40 39

1 35 12 60

5

2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0

0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

48 32

11352 45 11097 02

11586 31±34 84 11501 29±40 86

2 06 3 64

59 50

11389 77 11143 83

11558 17±33 85 11548 22 ± 48 5

1 48 3 63

t + 3) is 886%. Notice also that the system maintains lower inventory levels (zero inventory) as customers place their orders (3 > L + l periods) in advance. In this sense, advance demand information is a substitute for inventory. Based on such an analysis, the inventory manager can decide whether to invest in strategies to obtain advance demand information. Notice that advance demand information allows a fundamental bridge between build-to-stock and build-to-order systems.

narios. For a ﬁxed system lead time, the difference between any two curves in Figure 3(a) and (b) gives us the reduction in inventory-related costs and basestock levels due to advance demand information. These savings can be seen as the value of advance demand information. We also observe the reduction in base-stock levels and the costs with the system lead time. Both ﬁgures depict the joint effect of total lead time and advance demand information on the system performance.

5.3.

5.4.

Advance Demand Information and Lead Time Reduction In Figures 3(a) and (b), we plot optimal system-wide base-stock levels and the associated costs as a function of total system lead time. We systematically decrease the supplier lead time while keeping the retailers’ lead time constant (l = 2) to illustrate the beneﬁt of lead time reduction on total cost. Each curve represents different advance demand information sceTable 5

Advance Demand Information as a Substitute for Lead Time Consider the following three distribution systems with two retailers (from Tables 1 and 2): ID

L l

ADI Scenario

y∗

Cost (LB)

ADI Scenario

y∗

Cost (LB)

S1 S2 S3

1 1 0 2 1 2

2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0

20 20 20

4,510.59 4,562.49 4,510.59

0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

14 16 14

4,411.44 4,464.43 4,411.44

Cost of LB and UB for Two Retailers h = 0 05 p = 1 c = 0 5 L = 0 l = 1

0 1 2 3 3 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 3

h = 1 p = 19 c = 10 L = 1 l = 1

yt 0

LB

UB

UB − LB/LB%

yt 0

LB

UB

UB − LB/LB%

20 18 12 6 0 0

329.39 326.74 321.86 312.26 299.00 297.00

332 12 ± 0 07 329 64 ± 0 07 325 59 ± 0 07 316 41 ± 0 06 306 06 ± 0 06 303 15 ± 0 06

0.83 0.89 1.16 1.33 2.36 2.07

27 25 19 11 5 0

7255 07 7209 71 7130 77 6964 17 6765 43 6612 00

7381 32±19 22 7374 48±20 56 7303 79±21 17 7085 26±22 54 6866 23±23 84 6661 07±23 39

1.74 2.29 2.43 1.74 1.04 0.74

8.86%

266

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Table 6

Advance Demand Information vs. Postponement yt 0

0 1 2 3 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2

Cost of LB

L=0 l =3

L=1 l =2

L=2 l =1

L=0 l =3

L=1 l =2

L=2 l =1

%

26 20 16 10

25 20 14 8

24 19 13 8

100 00† 97 71 95 20 92 03

99 23 96 76 93 87 89 86

98 36 95 63 92 23 89 13

1 67 2 18 3 22 3 25

8 66

9 44

9 38

100 00‡ 97 36 94 37 90 91

99 03 96 30 93 10 88 47

98 02 95 01 91 25 87 76

9.99%

11.94%

10.46%

†100 00 ≡ 5500 58 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

14 10 8 4

13 10 7 4

13 10 7 4

‡100 00 ≡ 2809 94

2 02 2 47 3 42 3 59

Note. N = 3 h = 1 c = 10 p = 19.

Distribution systems S1 and S3 differ only in their retailer lead time and in their advance demand information scenario. Customers of S3 place orders one more period in advance than that of S1, while the retailers in S3 wait one period longer than the retailers in S1 to receive their orders. Observe that both cost and base-stock level for S1 are equal to those for S3. In this sense, advance demand information is a substitute for retailer lead time. Similarly, customers of S3 Figure 3

place orders one more period in advance than that of S2, which has a shorter supplier lead time. Notice that S3 maintains slightly lower base-stock levels and has slightly lower inventory costs than S2. System S3 accounts further gain due to the risk pooling during the ﬁrst L periods. All other numerical examples also suggest that if other factors remain the same: Encouraging customers to place orders one more period in advance (1) has the same effect in holding and

(a) Cost vs. System Lead Time and ADI (b) Base-Stock Levels vs. System Lead Time and ADI for T = 50 h = 1 p = 19 c = 10

(a)

(b) 35

4650.00

2,0,0,0,0 0,2,0,0,0

30

0,0,2,0,0

4550.00

0,0,0,2,0 0,0,0,0,2

25

y*(0)

Cost (LB)

4450.00

4350.00

15

A

4250.00

20

B

10

4150.00

2,0,0,0,0 0,2,0,0,0

5

0,0,2,0,0

4050.00

0,0,0,2,0 0,0,0,0,2

3950.00

2

0

3

4

System Lead Time (L+l)

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

5

2

3

4

5

System Lead Time (L+l)

267

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

penalty cost as reducing the retailers’ lead time by one period, and 2 has more gains than reducing supplier lead time by one period. The gain due to risk pooling and advance demand information, together, outweighs the gain from reducing the supplier lead time. Another example for the later phenomenon can be observed in Figure 3(a). While B has one period longer supply lead time than A, the inventory manager in B obtains demand information one period earlier than A’s manager. The difference between the costs in A and B can be attributed to the gains due to risk pooling. For a continuous review single location inventory control problem, Hariharan and Zipkin (1995, p. 1600) show that: “Demand lead times are, in a precise sense, the opposite of supply lead times.” Our numerical results suggest that this result carries over to the periodic review distribution system as an UB on the cost; that is, one would gain even more compared to the single location problems due to risk pooling. 5.5.

Advance Demand Information and Postponement We now interpret this distribution system as a multi-item production system with a common intermediate product. The warehouse represents the differentiation point. During the ﬁrst L period, a common batch is produced. At the end of this period, the manager must decide how much of each item to produce and it takes l periods to produce each of these units. We address the effect of advance demand information on postponement strategies in Table 6 by altering the differentiation point L and advance demand information scenario. Columns 2–7 in Table 6 correspond to different differentiation points, whereas the rows correspond to different advance demand information scenarios. Immediate differentiation and no advance demand information is the base case for which the cost is indexed to 100. Consider, for example, the no advance demand information scenario. As we move from the column in which we have immediate differentiation L = 0 to the one in which we do not differentiate until the last period L = 2, we observe a reduction in the base-stock level from 26 to 24 and the cost from 100 to 9836. Now, similarly 268

consider the case of no postponement (immediate differentiation). As we move from the row in which we have no advance demand information 2 0 0 0 to the row in which all customers place their orders three periods in advance, we observe a reduction in the base-stock level from 26 to 10. A more complete numerical study for postponement should address the correlation among the end items. For the case of positive correlation among end items, the gains due to postponement would be lower than that of an independent case. In fact, if the products are perfectly positively correlated, there is nothing to be gained through postponement (Aviv and Federgruen 2001a). For the positive (negative) correlation case, the above numerical study provides an upper (lower) bound to the beneﬁt of postponement. A similar numerical study can also be used to compare the beneﬁts of obtaining advance demand information and the problem of warehouse location. Note that in the warehouse-retailer context, this section could be titled as “the joint role of advance demand information and risk pooling.”

6.

Restriction and Allocation

Next, we provide an explicit solution for the systemwide order-up-to level. Our aim is to gain further insights for the joint role of risk pooling and advance demand information. To obtain this closed-form solution, we assume that (1) unit holding and penalty j cost is the same for all retailers, (2) dt s follows a nor2 for mal distribution with mean 8s−t and variance 9s−t s ∈ t t + N , (3) allocation assumption (introduced by Eppen and Schrage 1981) holds,10 and (4) we restrict the policy space to the class of stationary order-up-to S policies and allocate based on the solution of the myopic problem in Equation (7).

10

Allocation Assumption. In each allocation period t, the warehouse receives a sufﬁcient amount so that it can bring all retailers to an equal fractile level on their respective demand distributions; that is, stock-out probability is the same at all retailers.

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

Under these assumptions, the optimal order-up-to level is S∗ =

J t+L+l j=1 s=t

j

ot s + J

L+l L + l + 1 − k 8k

k=0 L L+l L + zJ L − k 9k2 + J 2 l + 1 9k2 + J 2 L + l + 1 − k 9k2 k=0

k=0

by pooling demand and gaining through statistical economies of scale (but never eliminating it). Given all four assumptions, Equation (8) provides a simple closed-form solution for the system-wide base-stock level. This is a nonadaptive control mechanism unlike the solution provided by the dynamic program.

k=L+1

(8) where 8s 9s ≡ 0 for s > N because the manager does not accept orders beyond the information horizon. We defer the derivation to Appendix B. Note ﬁrst, that we can modify the term to account for the observed or the known part; that is, we deﬁne ∗ ≡ S ∗ − J t+L+l j ot s . j=1 s=t We observe that the reduction in base-stock level is larger with a decrease in the mean or the variance of the demand that is closer to the current period t, other factors being equal. A reduction in 8m (or 9m ) decreases ∗ more than a reduction in 8n (9n ) for t ≤ m < n ≤ N . This suggests that as more of the customers place their orders in advance, the system needs a lower safety stock (eventually, the safetystock level drops to zero if demand lead time for all customers is longer than the system lead time). Note that advance demand information reduces both the total mean and the safety stock (the last two terms in Equation (8)). This explicit solution also sheds light on the role of risk pooling in distribution systems. For a ﬁxed system lead time L + l, increasing L reduces ∗ . If we increase L to L + 1, the term inside the square root in Equation (8) decreases by J 2 − J 902 + · · · + 9L2 and all other terms remain the same. The gain due to risk pooling is larger for a system with several retailers that satisfy a more volatile demand. We also observe that an increase in retailer lead time l increases the uncertainty in the system more than an increase in supplier lead time L. Hence, the required safety stock is relatively larger for an increase in the retailer lead time. This discrepancy increases with the number of retailers in the system. In conclusion, Equation (8) suggests that while advance demand information can eliminate uncertainty by asking customers to place orders in advance, the risk pooling mitigates the effect of uncertainty Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

7.

Conclusion

In this paper, we study a distribution system with advance demand information. We show how to incorporate this new information structure and to better manage distribution systems. We propose a heuristic based on the solution of a lower bound problem. We illustrate that the heuristic, which is also used to show the beneﬁt of advance demand information, is close to optimal. We also show that all the existing results for distribution systems under demand uncertainty apply to our case if the inventory manager is interested only in incorporating advance demand information up to retailer lead times, plus one more review period. We show that systems with advance demand information end up having lower inventory levels and inventoryrelated costs. In this sense, advance demand information is a substitute for inventories as well as for production and shipment lead times. Finally, we provide an explicit solution for the system-wide inventory position. We also provide some insights into the role of risk pooling and advance demand information. As pointed out by Billington and Amaral (1999), strategic evaluation of design problems requires evaluation of alternatives to identify the one that creates the greatest value. Our model provides a framework to quantify the system performance with respect to the factors discussed in this paper such as risk pooling, advance demand information, warehouse location, shipment lead times and so forth. Acknowledgments

The author thanks an anonymous associate editor and the referees. The discussions during my presentations at the University of California–Berkeley, Columbia University, Stanford University were beneﬁcial. The suggestions and comments have considerably improved the exposition of this article.

Appendix A:

Proofs

Proof of Theorem 1. It is based on an induction argument and is similar to Aviv and Federgruen (2001a). First, we show

269

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

that the relaxation yields a dynamic programming (DP) recursion with a state space that aggregates the state variables across the retailers. We prove this ﬁrst for the terminal period T . To distinguish the DP under relaxation from the original one given in Equation (3), we refer to it as Jt and JT +1 ≡ 0. Note that for t = T , ot is a vector of zeros because we do not accept orders beyond T + l by assumption.

J j j 0 JT xT vT oT = cT wT + GT yT min j J j j wT y ' y −x =wT −L wT ≥0 T j=1 T T

j=1

=

cT0 wT

min

j wT YT 'YT = j x +wT −L wT ≥0 T

+ =

j wT YT 'YT = j x +wt−L wt ≥0 T

= VT

j

j

j

GT yT

cT0 wT + RT YT

j j y ' j y =YT j T T

min

min

j T

x vT OT

Now, assume that the theorem is true by induction for t + 1, and we have Vt+1 Xt+1 vt+1 Ot+1 = Jt+1 xt+1 vt+1 ot+1 . So, we have min

j J j j wt yt ' y −x =wt−L wt ≥0 j=1 t t

ct0 wt +

j

+ EVt+1 =

ct0 wt +

min

j wt Yt 'Yt = j xt +wt−L wt ≥0

j

j

min

j wt Yt 'Yt = j xt +wt−L wt ≥0

= Vt

j

j

yt −

min

t+l+1

j j yt ' j yt =Yt

s=t

Dts −Ott+l+1 Ot+1

j

j

j

Gt yt

ct0 wt +Rt Yt + EVt+1 Xt+1 vt+1 Ot+1

j

xt vt Ot

This proves the equivalence of Jt (the DP with relaxation) and Vt (the DP with the aggregate state space). Note that because we relax a constraint, the action space is larger than the previous case. This implies Jt xt vt ot ≤ Jt xt vt ot , which concludes the ﬁrst part of j j the theorem. Rt inherits the convexity property simply from Gt yt , concluding the proof. Proof of Theorem 2. By induction on t, we prove ﬁrst Parts 1–3. For t = T , HT y OT = cT0 y + RT y , which is convex in y for any given vector OT due to Theorem 1. Assume by induction that ∗ Part 1 is true for t +1. Let yt+1 Ot+1 be the smallest y that minimizes Ht+1 · Ot+1 . This implies the second part of the theorem; if x ≤ ∗ ∗ Ot+1 , then order up to yt+1 Ot+1 . Optimal value Vt+1 x Ot+1 + yt+1 ∗ c0t+1 x = Ht+1 maxx yt+1 Ot+1 Ot+1 . This function is increasing

270

≥ ct0 + =Rt x − 3

j

Gt yt

+ EVt+1 Xt+1 vt+1 Ot+1 =

=Ht x Ot + 3e1 = ct0 + =Rt x

+ E=Vt+1 x − Ot t+l+1 − 3 −

Jt xt vt ot =

convex in x because Ht+1 x Ot+1 is convex and increasing for x > ∗ yt+1 Ot+1 due to our induction hypothesis. To complete the induction argument for Parts 1–3, it sufﬁces to show that Part 1 is true for t. This follows from the deﬁnition of Ht and noticing that (1) the update Xt+1 is linear in x, (2) the composition of increasing convex function and a linear function is convex, (3) expectation (and summation) preserves convexity, and (4) Rt · is convex. Before addressing Parts 4–6, we prove a preliminary result. We deﬁne =hx y = hx + 1 y − hx y as the ﬁrst difference of function hx y . Remark 1. If f x and gx are two convex functions and xf , xg are the smallest minimizer of f · and g· , respectively, and =f x ≥ =gx , then xf ≤ xg Proof. Assume for a contradiction that xf > xg , we have =gxg − 1 < 0 ≤ =gxf − 1 ≤ =f xf − 1 The ﬁrst inequality is due to the optimality of xg . The second one is due to the assumption xf > xg . The third one is due to the statement =f x ≥ =gx . Then, we have =f xf − 1 > 0 but this contradicts the optimality of xf . Hence, xf ≤ xg . First, let us prove that yt∗ Ot + 3e1 − yt∗ Ot ≤ 3, that is Part 5 holds for j = 1 and for all t. We have for any x

+ E=Vt+1 x − Ot t+l+1 − 3 − = =Ht x − 3 Ot

t+l+1 s=t

t+l+1 s=t

Dt s Ot+1

Dt s Ot+1 (9)

The inequality is due to the convexity of Rt x . Note that the smallest minimizer of Ht x − 3 Ot is nothing but yt∗ Ot + 3. Also yt∗ Ot + 3e1 is the smallest minimizer of Ht · Ot + 3e1 , which is convex from Part 1. From inequality (9) and Remark 1, we conclude that yt∗ Ot + 3e1 ≤ yt∗ Ot + 3. Note that Ht yt∗ Ot Ot xt < yt∗ Ot (10) Vt x Ot = −ct0 x + H x O x ≥ yt∗ Ot t t Next, we prove =Vt x − 3 Ot ≤ =Vt x Ot + 3e1 for all t. To do this, we divide the domain of these two functions into four mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive cases. Case 1. If x − 3 < yt∗ Ot and x < yt∗ Ot + 3e1 , then =Vt x − 3 Ot = 0 −ct = =Vt x Ot + 3e1 . Case 2. If x − 3 < yt∗ Ot and x ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3e1 , then =Vt x − 3 Ot = −ct0 ≤ −ct0 +=Ht x Ot +3e1 = =Vt x Ot +3e1 . The inequality is due to the fact that Ht · Ot +3e1 is increasing for x ≥ yt∗ Ot +3e1 (which is due to Parts 1 and 2). Case 3. The case x − 3 ≥ yt∗ Ot and x < yt∗ Ot + 3e1 is not possible because we already showed that yt∗ Ot + 3e1 ≤ yt∗ Ot + 3. Case 4. If x − 3 ≥ yt∗ Ot and x ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3e1 , then =Vt x − 3 Ot = 0 −ct + =Ht x − 3 Ot ≤ −ct0 + =Ht x Ot + 3e1 = =Vt x Ot + 3e1 The inequality is due to Equation (9).

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

ÖZER Replenishment Strategies for Distribution Systems Under Advance Demand Information

All four cases show that =Vt x − 3 Ot ≤ =Vt x Ot + 3e1 for all t. From the deﬁnition of Ht , the update Xt+1 , and the above cases we conclude that =Ht x Ot + 3e1 = −ct0 + =Rt x + E=Vt+1 x − Ot t+l+1 −3 − t+l+1 Dt s Ot+1 ≤ −ct0 +=Rt x + E=Vt+1 x −Ot t+l+1 − s=t t+l+1 Dt s Ot+1 + 3e1 = =Ht x Ot + 3e2 . s=t Next, we want to show by induction that

=Ht x Ot + 3ej ≤ =Ht x Ot + 3ej+1

(11)

is true also for all j > 1. Now, assume for an induction argument that it is true for an arbitrary j, then Part 1 and Remark 1 imply that Part 4 for j is true. To prove Equation (11) for j + 1, we ﬁrst prove =Vt x Ot + 3ej ≤ =Vt x Ot + 3ej+1 . For this, we consider only three cases because we already showed that yt∗ Ot + 3ej ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3ej+1 and use Equation (10). Case 1. If x ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3ej then =Vt x Ot + 3ej = −ct0 + =Ht x Ot + 3ej ≤ −ct0 + =Ht x Ot + 3ej+1 = =Vt x Ot + 3ej+1 . Case 2. If yt∗ Ot + 3ej > x ≥ yt∗ Ot + 3ej+1 , then =Vt x Ot + 3ej = −ct0 ≤ −ct0 + =Ht x Ot + 3ej+1 = =Vt x Ot + 3ej+1 because Ht x O is increasing for x ≥ yt∗ O . Case 3. If yt∗ Ot + 3ej+1 > x, then =Vt x Ot + 3ej = −ct0 = =Vt x Ot + 3ej+1 . The above three cases prove that =Vt x Ot + 3ej ≤ =Vt x Ot + 3ej+1 . From the deﬁnition of Ht , we obtain =Ht x Ot + 3ej+1 = −ct0 + =Rt x + E=Vt+1 x − Ott+l+1 − t+l+1 Dt s Ot+1 + 3ej ≤ −ct0 + t+l+1 s=t =Rt x + E=Vt+1 x − Ot t+l+1 − s=t Dt s Ot+1 + 3ej+1 = =Ht x Ot + 3ej+2 Note that due to the state variable update, the perturbation in the observed demand for 3ej+1 in period t becomes a perturbation of 3ej in period t + 1. This completes the induction argument for Equation (11) and the proof of Part 4. Recall that Part 5 for j = 1 was proved earlier. Hence, the result Part 5 for j > 1 immediately follows from Part 4 since yt∗ Ot +3ej −yt∗ Ot ≤ yt∗ Ot +3ej−1 − yt∗ Ot ≤ · · · ≤ yt∗ Ot + 3e1 − yt∗ Ot ≤ 3. The proof of Part 6 is similar to the Proof of Theorem 4, Part 5 in Gallego and Özer (2001). Proof of Lemma 1. The difference between V˜t and Vt consists of the costs during the periods t t +L. Note that the orders initiated at the beginning of period t will not arrive until the beginning of period t + L. Hence, the cost incurred between these periods is given by rt Xt vt Ot = Rt Xt + wt−L + ERt+1 Xt + wt−L + wt−L+1 − t+l+1 r+l+1 Dt s − Ot t+l+1 + · · · + L−1 ERt+L−1 Xt4 − t+L−2 Dr s − r=t s=r s=t t+L−2 Os s+l+1 This function is clearly independent of the decision s=t variables wt and yt .

Appendix B:

Derivation of S ∗

Under all four assumptions in §6, at the beginning of period t, the inventory manager monitors the system-wide inventory position and orders to bring this level up to S. Orders from the outside supplier arrive L periods later. The inventory to be allocated at j j time t + L is then given by S − V , where V = Jj=1 t+L−1 ot s + ut s . s=t Given the above assumptions, the expected costs charged to period t +L would be the same as period t +L+1 for all t. Hence, we focus

Management Science/Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2003

only on the single-period cost charged to period t + L. That is, j j E%hy˜t+L − W j + + py˜t+L − W j − & min j ∀j t+L

y˜

∀j

subject to

∀j

j y˜t+L = S − V

where y˜ j is the classical inventory position (that is, it is not yet j j modiﬁed) and W j = t+L+l s=t+L ot s + ut s . As in Zipkin (1982), introducing the Lagrange multiplier 7 and solving for the minimizers of the Lagrangian function, we obtain the optimal allocation for each retailer; that is, p−7 ∗ j yt+L = EW j + Var%W j [email protected] −1 p+h where @· is the cdf of standard normal. Note that from L our assumption (2), we have EW j = t+L+l 8 + s=t+L ot s + l + 1 L L+l k=0 k L+l 2 j k=L+1 L + l + 1 − k 8k and Var%W & = l + 1 k=0 9k + k=L+1 L + l + j 1 − k 9k2 . We sum ∗ yt+L across all retailers and equate it to S − V and solve for @ −1 p − 7 /p + h . By substituting this expression, we obtain j t+L+l S − V − Jj=1 t+L+l j s=t+L ot s ∗ j yt+L = ot s + J s=t+L j

If the inventory position at each retailer brought to ∗ yt+L , then the stock at the end of period t + L + l will be a random quantity and is given by ∗ j t+L

y

−Wj =

S−

J

j=1

t+L+l

s=t+L

J j

j

ot s

−

t+L+l

s=t+L

j

ut s +

J t+L−1 j 1 u J i=1 s=t t s

j

= s −A The expected single-period cost for each retailer j is Gj S = hEs j − A j + + pEs j − A j − , which is a function of S and the expectation is with respect to A j . Note that the minimizer of this function is achieved by choosing S such that P A j ≤ s j = p/p + h . From this, we have p s j − EA j z = @ −1 = p+h Var%A j & L 2 j where EA j = L+l k=0 L + l + 1 − k 8k and Var%A & = l + 1 k=0 9k + L+l 1 L 2 2 L + l + 1 − k 9 + L − k 9 . Solving for S, we obtain k=L+1 k=1 k k J the explicit solution in Equation (8), which is independent of j. This means that while it is a minimizer of Gj · , it is also a minimizer of ∀j Gj · . It is, therefore, the optimal system-wide order-up-to level.

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Accepted by Fangruo Chen; received February 23, 2001. This paper was with the author 8 months for 2 revisions.

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